COMMUNICATIONS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKETING, Case: directions for researching the brand image, General characteristics of the brand - International Marketing


Case: directions for researching the brand image

General Brand Characteristics

Most researchers and practitioners recognize the importance of a vibrant brand image. For example, D. Aaker (1991) argues that the brand image benefits in various ways: helping consumers to process information, highlighting the brand from a number of other reasons to buy, reporting positive feelings, and providing a basis for extensions

However, there is still no consensus on the definition of the brand image ( Dobni & Zinkhan, 1990). For example, the theory of & quot; consumer brand equity & quot; (the term introduced in the early 1950s by D. Ogilvy) can largely be compared with the theory of the "brand image". Identifying the brand image as a "brand image", i.e. related to the brand association remaining in the memory of the consumer ", formulated by Keller (1993), are shared by many authors ( Newman, 1957; Dichter, 1985; Aaker, 1991, Engel, Blackwell & Miniard, 1995). A simpler definition might look like this: "anything that the consumer can associate with a specific brand."

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As Keller points out, these associations can vary in strength (availability of information), adequacy (compliance of generated information with consumer requests) and uniqueness (an indication that this association is not characteristic of competing brands). Keller believes that the two components of brand awareness are the brand image and brand awareness (recalling the brand and recognizing it). He subdivides the notion of the brand (and therefore, the brand image) into three categories that go from concrete to abstract.

Attributes: Keller points to the difference between non-product attributes (price, packaging, user image, usage pattern; the last two can also form attributes related to the person consuming the brand and related to product).

Benefits: functional (related to physiological needs), sensory (sensations arising from the use of the product) and symbolic (the need for social approval or self-esteem). For more details, see Park, Jaworski & amp; MacInnis (1986).

Attitude to the brand , defined as a general brand evaluation by consumers.

Another valuable contribution to the typology of branding was made by Aaker (1991). He distinguishes between 11 branding categories: product properties, intangibles, intangibles, consumer benefits, price, use/use, user image, fame, lifestyle, product class, competitors and country of origin.


A brand is a word, an expression, a sign, a symbol, a design solution, or a combination thereof, used to indicate the goods (services) of a particular seller (seller group) to distinguish them from competitors' products (services) (the definition developed by American Marketing Associations - AMA, by the American Marketing Association.

A brand is a name, term, symbol, pattern, or combination thereof designed to identify a specific producer's products and services, and differentiate them from competitors' products (Karl Bondorff, Professor of Lindby Business College, "Models and marketing tools"). .

A brand is a unique name, symbol, design, or image used to identify a particular product or company.

At the heart of the perception of the brand is a set of ideas, ideas, images, associations. In the minds of people, they are inseparable from man, idea, organization, product (service). In the fashion industry, the brand is associated with the name of the designer, the firm, the product (service), and they all complement each other. When creating a brand, you need to highlight what it stands out for and what it is interesting to others. The difficulty is that the brand is an intangible entity, it is something like an aura, it can not be touched, the essence of a brand can be felt and presented rather than seen.

Brand helps:

• find out the goods at the mention;

• select the product from the total mass;

• create an attractive image that inspires trust in consumers;

• Focus different emotions associated with the product;

• Take a decision to buy and confirm the correctness of the choice, ie. get satisfaction from the decision;

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• Form a group of regular customers who associate their lifestyle with the brand.

In marketing practice, the brand has integral components, one of which is the brand image.

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