Introduction to Programming
After studying chapter 11, the bachelor must:
• the basic stages of creating programs;
• Ways and means of programming;
be able to
• make a choice of programming tools and debugging;
• skills in setting up a programming problem and algorithmizing its solution.
Programming and software engineering
The process of creating programs
Program is a logically ordered, strictly regulated sequence of commands (instructions) for computer management. Programs are created to solve specific problems. The process of creating programs includes three main stages: setting the problem, algorithmizing the solution of the problem and directly programming.
There are two classes of tasks:
• functional, which are put by the user and solved to meet the needs of subject (applied) areas, for example, enterprise management, product planning,
• technological, which are set and solved in the organization of the technological process of data processing and serve as the basis for the development of software tools (in the form of utilities, procedure libraries, etc.), used to maintain the computer, develop other programs or process functional data tasks.
Statement of the task - the exact wording of the problem for the solution on the computer with the description of the input and output information. The input information can be the data of manual documents; normative-reference information or the results of solving other problems stored in the database; electrical signals coming from the sensors, and other data. The output information can be presented in the form of a document (such as a listing), a videogram on the monitor screen, an electrical signal to control a particular device. When the functional task is formulated, its goal, place and connections with other tasks are formulated; the conditions for solving the problem are clarified using computer aids; functions for processing input information are defined, etc.Algorithmizing the solution of the problem consists in constructing an algorithm, which is a system of precisely formulated rules for obtaining the desired result (output information) using input data. The main properties of the algorithm are:
• Discreteness - step by step solution of the problem;
• certainty - uniqueness of the implementation of each step;
• feasibility - obtaining a result in a finite number of steps;
• mass - the suitability of the algorithm for solving a certain class of problems.
In the algorithm, using logic formulas, logical conditions, control over the reliability of results and other means, the logic and method of solving the problem are reflected.
Programming is a theoretical and practical activity related to the direct creation of programs.
The main work on the creation of programs is performed by programmers, which are divided into system and application, while:
• The system programmer develops, operates and maintains the system software, which coordinates the entire operation of the computer. Its main task is to create an operating environment for executing application programs;
• The application programmer is engaged in the development, debugging and operation of programs intended for solving functional problems (algorithmization of the solution of the problem, direct programming).
When developing information systems using integrated databases, a database administrator is involved in creating an information environment for program execution. At the initial stage of creating programs (setting and algorithmizing the solution of the problem, creating an information environment for program execution), a specialist in the subject area, the program manager, participates in the work. Since the main user of programs is the end-user, when setting the task, the qualification characteristics of users are taken into account.
The technology for developing, debugging, verifying and implementing software is called soft technology. Its rapid development is due to the transition to industrial production technology programs, the desire to reduce the time, labor and material costs for their production and operation programs, ensuring a guaranteed level of quality. There are two main types of software tools (Figure 11.1): tools for creating applications and tools for creating information systems [2, 17].
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