More recently, the theory and practice of neuromarketing has become quite active in studying consumer behavior in relation to new products. The concept of neuromarketing was (presumably) first developed by psychologists at Harvard University (USA) in the 1990s. It is based on the assertion that the subconscious is responsible for the cognitive activity of a person (along with his emotions), basically (by 90%). uncontrolled consciousness of the brain area.
The most famous neuromarketing technology was developed in the late 1990s. Harvard professor J. Zaltman, whom she was patented as "Zaltman's metaphor extraction method" (Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Method, abbreviated ZMET) . This method involves the process of probing the human subconscious with the use of sets of pictures (appropriately selected). They are able to evoke an emotional positive response and can activate hidden images-metaphors that stimulate purchase.
Testing the illustration is that the participants in the study are shown a certain illustration (picture or photo) depicting people placed in a typical situation and solving some problems and asking them to describe their reaction to it. The researcher analyzes the contents of these descriptions in order to determine the feelings, reactions, caused by this illustration. This method is used when choosing the best advertising options, illustrations for brochures, images on packaging, etc., as well as the headers that accompany them. An analysis of the received materials shows that in many cases people transfer their own problems to the characters and, thus, provide information that they would not dare to provide directly.
Testing the illustrations may involve recording in a free space above the head of one of the actors, usually depicted simply by a contour, comments by the test subject regarding the situation depicted in the figure, followed by an analysis of these records. The interviewee must put himself in the place of this character and answer for him.
Identified images become the basis for designing graphic collages, which are used in commercials of new products.
Among the methods of neuromarketing also include physiological measurements based on the study of involuntary reactions of respondents to marketing incentives in the form of a new product through the use of special equipment. For example, studying the expansion and movement of pupils in the study of certain goods, pictures, etc. Then the study of eclectic activity and perspiration of respondents' skin is carried out.
So, special experiments are conducted to determine the attitude of people to various models of household appliances. In the process of their monitoring, the behavior of respondents is monitored. Before them, various versions of the goods, including the new model, are displayed, and with the help of contact and proximity sensors, video recording fixes eye movement, pupil size, pulse rate, perspiration, sequence and character of studying different models. A survey of a new product can be conducted using equipment such as the "lie detector."
When conducting research on the behavior of customers in relation to new products, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used. For example, in 2002-2003. in the framework of the American scientific and commercial project "The Institute of Thought Sciences Brighthouse" (Atlanta), a neuromarketing method based on MRI was developed. His key ideas are similar to the ideas ZMET, and it also provides for the use of pictures and photos of new products. From ZMET the method of MRI differs in that the establishment of reaction of the surveyed people to the images presented to them occurs not through psychological analysis, but by studying the areas of the brain (with the help of a magnetic resonance tomograph) , which are activated at the same time. Mostly the reaction of the so-called pleasure center is monitored. If this part of the brain is activated when viewing photos or a video about a new product, the conclusion is that the innovation is like. If the center of pleasure does not react or reacts poorly, then at the subconscious level the new product does not like it.
The analysis of the protocol consists in placing the respondent in a certain decision-making situation, while he must verbally describe all the factors and arguments with which he was guided in making the decision. Sometimes when using this method a tape recorder is used. Then the researcher analyzes the protocols presented by the respondents.
Associative methods include associative conversations and associative test of words or verbal associations. In the process of associative conversation, the respondent is guided by questions of this kind: "What do you think this or this is about ...?", "What thoughts do you have now in connection with? & Quot; etc. This method allows the interrogated to say everything that comes to mind. In the event that some respondents experience difficulties in expressing their preferences, if only because of insufficient stock of words, then they are limited to several variants of answers.
The associative test of words consists in reading the respondent words, which in response must say the first word that comes to mind. For example, words used in advertising, in names and brands of products are tested. Thus, they try to reveal the true feelings of the respondents in relation to the object of the test. It also fixes the delay in response, meaning that a large delay in response means that there is no clearly expressed association of the test word with any other words (pleasant, beautiful, ugly, unaesthetic ...). For example, we tested the variations of the names of a new soft drink. Students responded to one of the titles with words such as "light", "hissing", "cold", which substantially corresponded to the actual consumer properties of the drink.
Test by completing sentences
The test by completing the proposal is to provide the respondents with an unfinished proposal, which they must complete in their own words. It is assumed that when performing this task, the respondent will provide some information about himself. Suppose that a cellular company has decided to expand its market to adolescents. The researcher invited the students of one of the schools to finish the following sentences:
The one who uses a cellular connection is ...
Cellular communication is good to use when ...
My friends think that cellular communication is ...
Next, the end of the sentence is analyzed.
The implementation of all described methods is based on the high professionalism of the persons conducting them, which leads to a high cost of their implementation. This is especially true of the interpretation of the results obtained.
Usually, these methods are used after the researcher has already received information on the basis of the questionnaire that gives him the opportunity to formulate several hypotheses that will either be confirmed or refuted.
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