Possible situations when selecting criteria
1. Underestimation of the absolute scale of the goal and the necessary costs. One of the most common criteria is efficiency, i.e. the ratio of results achieved to costs. Such a criterion may seem reasonable, but it can be satisfied by various systems.
For example, one treatment system can eliminate 5 impurities and cost 1 million rubles. (ratio 5: 1), and the other system can eliminate 20 impurities and cost 20 million rubles. (ratio 1: 1). Should the first system be chosen based on such a criterion? No, because you can not neglect the scale of the activity, i.e. absolute magnitude of damage to the environment caused by unaccounted for pollutants in the first case.
2. Wrong selection of the target or its scale. Wrong choice is possible with respect to the purpose and in terms of costs. If the goal of the actions in the example given is defined as the ability to eliminate 5 impurities, the first system will be the best; if the goal is to eliminate 20 impurities, then the second system will be better.
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3. Neglect of uncertainty. For example, having defined a goal as the ability to eliminate 20 impurities, you need to know exactly the type of these ingredients. Otherwise, a specific type of future action is not known.
4. Underestimation of impact on other production situations. A mistake of this type is that criteria are chosen that do not allow to reveal how alternative options affect costs and achieve the goals in other circumstances. For example, different environmental measures are compared and their choice is made on the basis of the minimum cost required to maintain the ecological balance. The result of actions under such a criterion may be positive for small-scale production, but not sufficient for a mass production, since this criterion does not allow to take into account the influence of the output scale on efficiency. To choose a qualitative criterion, you should consider the options for the scale of output.
5. Misconceptions about costs and underestimation of the time factor. If the criterion is the minimum costs for maintaining the stability of the system for the next period, then the modification of existing systems may be preferable; for a more remote period, it will be more correct to create new systems.
6. Incorrect application of the correct criteria. A criterion suitable for comparing alternative variants of one type of action may not be suitable for analyzing other types of actions. For example, the criterion used when comparing alternative solutions to the acquisition problem, nothing ns indicates an optimal approach to system development.
Recommendations for selecting an efficiency criterion
1. Be wary of meaningless criteria and obvious errors (previously considered).
2. It is necessary to carefully study the criteria in each specific case of analysis, i.e. evaluate the relationship between the selected criteria and the criteria at the following levels.
3. You can compare systems by several criteria and choose a system that is preferable to these criteria.
4. One can use the strengthened argument: if the system is the best under some circumstances, then it will be even better under other, more favorable conditions.
5. You can sometimes agree with the imperfection of the criterion.
In order to correctly apply the analysis in terms of costs, it is important to split the tasks to be solved into several different groups.
A given amount of resources for a single target. If resources can only be used in one project, cost analysis is not critical. Therefore, when researching an investment project, one should strive for optimal solutions within the framework of the tasks set and the available resources.
The specified amount of resources for several purposes. The best allocation of resources for several purposes is when the most complete achievement of one of the goals can be achieved without compromising others. The task of the analysis is to determine the distribution of resources that ensures a minimum of total costs.
When solving this problem, it is necessary to consider the possible results for different types of purposes for different variants of resource consumption, to determine when the maximum possible result is achieved.
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If the goals cover a large period of time, then problems of resource allocation can not be solved, considering their volume and composition fixed.
The resources spent in different projects make their redistribution possible, i.e. allow to increase the volume of one project at the expense of another, and also to switch funds from one type of production to another.
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