Psychological and pedagogical conditions for the formation of a culture of peace in multicultural education
The success of the teacher in a multicultural educational environment, the ability to shape a culture of peace largely depend on the level of his intercultural competence. At the same time, the level of intercultural competence and the process of its development are related to the personal characteristics of people. The analysis of different approaches to the determination of the personal factors of the teacher, which contribute to or hinders his intercultural competence, allows us to distinguish here three main directions.
The first direction links the teacher's intercultural competence with sensitivity (ability to respond to external
irritants) to the ethnocultural characteristics and intercultural differences of students and their parents. In particular, one of the studies revealed that for high-school teachers who achieve the greatest results in teaching activities in a poly-cultural student environment, high sensitivity to the national psychological characteristics of students is typical, the ability to determine at a sufficiently high level what the environment causes among students specific national and psychological reactions, it is good to recognize and analyze national-specific features of behavior, actions and actions of students To forecast the actualization of the national attitudes and stereotypes of students; to foresee the manifestation of national standards, customs, habits, determine national values and cognitive interests of students in the activity and behavior of students, penetrate into the culture of national communication of students.
Sensitivity to the national-psychological characteristics of students as a whole allows teachers-masters to understand at a sufficient level the national specifics of norms, attitudes and behavior of students, and on this basis coordinate the joint activity of students of different nationalities, to anticipate and prevent conflict situations in the relationships of students of different nationalities . At the same time, the ability to perceive and predict the behavior of students is manifested more by teachers of higher educational institutions than by sensitivity to intrapersonal national-specific qualities.
Teachers with insufficient level of pedagogical skill are characterized by insensitivity to the national and psychological characteristics of students, they do not have an orientation toward the educational process, taking into account national psychological characteristics, and therefore educational activities are transformed into social and psychological communication.
Low sensitivity to the ethno-cultural characteristics and intercultural differences of students leads to significant pedagogical errors. In particular, a study was made of the perceptual errors of primary school teachers in England in the perception of the hyperactivity of English pupils - children from English families and families of Asian peoples. It turned out that teachers tend to attribute significantly greater hyperactivity to Asian children than was found when comparing these children with English peers.
In another study, trainee students from the US national minorities (Negroes and Indians) characterized students and parents in the classes where the practice was held. It turned out that students from ethnic minority groups were inclined
Explain the low discipline of students with insufficient respect for the "color" teachers, and parents "color" students have been reluctant to send their children to classes with & quot; color & quot; teachers.
Another study showed that most students in provincial American pedagogical colleges are insensitive to or deny intercultural differences, and the organization of friendly interaction between students and students from a non-Spanish (diaspora) diaspora through Internet conferences and pedagogical practice; the organization of regular observations of children's learning activities in real time via a web camera, the writing of reflexive diaries and participation in group (intra-student) discussions led to a significant increase in intercultural sensitivity (susceptibility to external influences).
The second direction finds the interdependence between the teacher's intercultural competence, on the one hand, and the peculiarities of his ethnic identity, the character of ethnic self-awareness, the effectiveness of his professional and pedagogical activity on the other. In particular, in the study of BA Vyatkin and V. Yu. Khotinets, the influence of the character of the ethnic self-identification of a primary school teacher on certain traits of the personality of students after learning from this teacher has been revealed. Teachers with "hyperpositive ethnic self-identification," which excessively oppose their ethnocultural specificity to others, students are more conflictual, tense, emotionally unstable, aggressive, dominant in relations with other people. In the case of teachers with a lithotically negative self-identification, which is expressed in a negative attitude towards certain features of their own ethnic group, the students are more anxious, in their relationships with their peers, are more excitable, less benevolent than teachers with a positive adequate self-identification, which is expressed in the adoption of one's own nationality and desire for cooperation with representatives of other nationalities.
The third direction assumes the dependence of the teacher's intercultural competence on his value attitudes toward the profession, ethno-cultural traditions and the experience of popular pedagogy, and ethnic diversity. In one of the studies, certain dependencies between the different values of students in relation to pedagogical activity were found (turned out to be different for students of Russian and Yakut ethno-cultural communities) and the peculiarities of professional and pedagogical activity in polyethnic classrooms during pedagogical practice. In the study of VD Tsalikov (1996) it is confirmed that many teachers demonstrate a value attitude to the traditions of popular pedagogy (point at the questionnaire), but in real pedagogical activity only a small number of teachers use elements of popular pedagogy and, at the same time, not always adequate to the tasks of teaching and upbringing.
A somewhat different position is taken by A. Syrodeev, who defends the need to change the position of the teacher in a modern school. Teacher, in her opinion, is no longer the leader, organizer or inspirer of the student's victories. He is a transformer that supports the student's independent work.
The status of a teacher who knows the truth and translates it in the form of a canon to students has been replaced by the status of an intermediary in the world of texts. At the center of his attention should be the child's internal attitude to what is happening, his internal position, and not external adequate behavior.
It should be borne in mind that multiculturalism as a property of social reality dictates the need to take this factor into account when building an educational and upbringing process. Therefore, the teacher's task is to prepare students for cross-cultural interaction, beginning with interaction at the lesson and ending with life strategies. It means that the role of the teacher's personality in the development of a culture of interethnic communication is today one of the main.
If the teacher promotes the formation of a tolerant attitude towards other cultures, then this must be considered insufficient. It is necessary to enter the "productive resource of otherness", as well as to discuss its relative nature, to provide mutual understanding of different cultures existing in the classroom, with the cultures of families, the social environment. At the same time, the question of the multicultural life of the teacher and student, ie, The opportunity to get to know different cultures outside of school in everyday life. Then, expanding the historical, geographical, intellectual framework of comparative study of cultures, the pupil acquires the skills of cultural decentration.
But the first step in preparing students for interethnic communication is to consider the formation of the teacher's own culture of interaction with students. How do we overcome difficulties by entering into a dialogue with the Other? & quot; - this question is offered to teachers to ask themselves as often as possible. And then a truly multicultural education will contribute to the spiritual and moral development of society.
Thus, intercultural competence is necessary for teachers to work in a class with a mixed ethnic composition. In addition, the most important condition for the success of teachers in a multicultural educational environment is the recognition of cultural differences between students.
The most frequently expressed attitude towards foreign ethnicity in the modern Russian school (namely, they are labeled as "migrant children", this term is not called a Russian child who moved from Smolensk to Moscow) can be generally characterized as the desire to ignore differences. "I would not say that there is any difference between a Russian child and an Afghan child. A child - he is a child, that an Afghan, that Russian ", - one of the metropolitan teachers believes. The St. Petersburg researcher EA Panova notes that "the teacher looks at the child through another prism - not" national "but" school ": the teacher is interested in the pupil's academic performance, his behavior."
& quot; I work with all children the same way. Why focus on differences? & Quot; Such an installation is widespread widely in the teaching environment. And it is from these positions that many teachers speak out against activities aimed at understanding the cultural differences of students. From this point of view, awareness of differences leads to conflicts, which would be less if teachers completely forgot about cultural features.
In this thesis, it would seem, a lot of the right. However, most of the other ethnic children are worse spoken in Russian, and more often than not they come to school with an insufficient educational level. An additional difficulty for the teacher is often the communication with their parents. Can this & quot; ignore & quot ;? You can try, but in this case the declared behavior will be in contradiction with the real one. Thus, according to the results of EA Panova's experiments, a pupil speaking with a strong or weak accent is most often perceived by teachers as "undeveloped, inhibited, partly even turned off from the situation of communication. According to teachers, a child with such a speech is in principle a bad thinker. " & quot; Rescue & quot; the situation can only appearance, corresponding to the stereotype of an honors pupil. And if the child looks different?
Unfortunately, the tendency to & quot; ignore & quot; problems, driving them deep into the environment as far as possible, is common in the educational environment. Also, with cultural differences - it seems easier not to pay attention to them. And the reason for this is not only (and maybe so much) in reluctance to understand, how many in the absence of a suitable tool.
A good teacher is a person who is sufficiently seising. He feels that in talking about "national differences" there are a lot of dirty tricks. The fact is that everyday vocabulary is in itself evaluative and ethnocentric. After all, if & quot; southern & quot; children "active", then the Russian is then automatically assigned a "passive" label. But if you do not like & quot; passivity & quot; Russian - then you can easily reinterpret & quot; activity & quot; & quot; southern & quot; to aggressiveness. In both cases, as a result of the comparison, an evaluation takes place - and one of the parties evaluated is always better than the other. What should the teacher do? Perhaps, in order not to decide the question of who is better - Russian or other ethnic pupils, it is worth to close your eyes to differences.
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