The law of unity and struggle of opposites, the transition of quantity to quality and quality to quantity, Denial of negation - Pedagogy. Theoretical pedagogy

The law of unity and struggle of opposites

Everything in our life is one and everything is the opposite. The law of unity and struggle of opposites in university courses of philosophy is illustrated by examples that are far from school practice. Meanwhile, there are few processes where this law would act so obviously, inevitably and even dramatically. His influence permeates literally all the cells, all aspects of the school system and the relations that develop in it. At every step, in every turn of events, we are trapped by contradictions, the struggle between them, in which the educational process draws its eternal movement. The advice to teachers is not new: if you want to get to the bottom, clear the source of development, cause significant changes - look for and reveal contradictions in the big and small, obvious and hidden, external and internal.

Take at least such an always controversial moment, as the ratio of emotional and rational in learning. Not all teachers can boast of balanced and balanced assessments of these opposites. Often we see that the educational process is overly regulated, there is little emotional and much rational in it. Or vice versa: emotions dominate logic, stirring up rally passions and nurturing neurasthenics. We continue to act as if we did not hear Ushinsky's call to teach cheerfully and severely, joking and serious, without turning the work into a joke. On the one hand, we know that boredom is a terrible enemy of learning, without overcoming which one can not hope for significant success. On the other hand, we do not cease to ask why our predecessors, who were by no means more stupid than us, adhered to the formula: "root of the doctrine of bitterness." You need a golden mean. The successes of the masters of pedagogical work are not least due to the fact that they have learned to combine business with pleasure. The formulas for success are simple, but the effect is great: the student must learn victoriously, the study must be fun, give the child a happy time and success is assured.

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Transfer of quantity to quality and quality to quantity

The constant process of transition of quantity to quality and quality into quantity is an organic property of learning. Dozens, hundreds of transformations occur simultaneously, characterizing the dialectic of constant quantitative growth, culminating in qualitative leaps. So in the whole process, and in the smallest of its parts. In separate lessons, these are subtle, minor changes, which, however, are fixed by an experienced teacher's eye - a great one is not achieved without small. Success comes to those who notice the shifts in time, study the dynamics of the transformations, identify the trends characteristic for the given class, and then, basing on them, professionally solve the problems of forecasting, diagnostics, designing a particular work.

From the law of the transition of quantitative changes into qualitative, many specific pedagogical laws follow. For the practice of managing the educational process, it is important, for example, that: quantitative and qualitative changes in teaching, upbringing and development necessarily entail changes in the nature of pedagogical activity, restructuring of management. Teachers who did not notice and did not take into account these changes and did not correct their strategy and tactics accordingly, risk losing influence. There is no one to blame: life does not worry about pedagogical problems. A new quality, emerging on the site of the old, begins to obey the laws of quantitative changes, and so on without end. The technology of pedagogical management, taking into account the operation of this law, must be flexible and mobile.

Denial of negation

On the action of the negation of negation in learning, it is possible to compile entire volumes, so diverse it is, changeable and subtle. Often the manifestations of this law are veiled and therefore rarely analyzed in theory and are not sufficiently taken into account in practice. A daily example. How could I not understand this? & quot; - the schoolboy is surprised, having understood, at last, that yesterday still could not comprehend. The teacher can, as it were, accelerate the process of denial-to find exactly the level of presentation of knowledge, on which they will be neither too simple nor too complex for the students. Modern didactics directs teachers to increase the level of learning difficulties, offers the idea of ​​a "difficult goal". There is no doubt: the cognitive powers of the students develop and grow in these conditions, they would only know the level of difficulty, the limit to which the bar should be raised in order for the height to be taken. A little mistake, and "altitude negation" may not come. What then do?

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From the need to think patterns do not free. All their strength lies in the fact that they will direct the intellect of the confused teacher to the channel of rational reflection, help determine what is permissible in this case and what is prohibited. Naturally, general patterns are suggested by general solutions. In the educational process, general patterns play the role of traffic lights at the crossroads of the main thoroughfares, allowing traffic on some sections and prohibiting others. This analogy helps to understand that the pedagogical system can function optimally only in the case when all regulators act synchronously and interrelated.

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