Memory impairments with local brain lesions, Attention disorders with local brain lesions, Impaired thinking with local brain lesions, Impaired emotions in local brain lesions - Clinical psychology

Impaired memory in local brain lesions

The following memory violations are known:

• Hyponeiasia (memory impairment) can have different origins: congenital, associated with age-related changes, acquired due to trauma; patients are characterized by a weakening of all types of memory;

• Hypermemia (aggravation of memory) - a dramatic increase in volume and strength of memorization

• Paramnesia - is a special state when a person experiences a feeling of familiarity when encountering unfamiliar objects. Paramnesis is divided into confabulation (false memories) and cryptomnesia (memory distortion);

• amnesia - a special type of memory anomaly (significant decrease or lack of memory).

In addition to the main types of amnesia, another type is singled out - pseudo-amnesia. In this case, memory impairment is weakly expressed and memory mainly acts as a mnestic activity.

There are two main types of memory impairment with local brain damage:

• modal-nonspecific memory abnormalities - a whole group of pathological phenomena that are inhomogeneous in nature, for which a common imprint of any information modality is common;

• modal-specific memory impairments - the type of mnemonic defects associated with a certain modality of stimuli and propagating only to stimuli that are addressed to only one analyzer.

These violations include violations of visual memory, auditory memory, musical memory, tactile memory, motor memory.

Violations of attention during local brain lesions

Modal-nonspecific violation of attention is a type of attention impairment that extends to any forms and levels of attention. The patient can not concentrate on the stimuli of any modality, the rapid exhaustion of attention, the sharp decrease in the amount of attention, the violation of concentration in any kind of activity due to the weakness of those mechanisms that support attention.

Modal-specific disturbance of attention - the type of attention disturbances that manifest themselves in relation to the stimuli of one modality.

Visual inattention - with simultaneous presentation of stimuli to both the right and left, the patient clearly prefers one side (mostly right).

Auditory inattention - the patient hears only those sounds (words) that are fed into one ear, and ignores the information entering the second ear.

Tactile inattention - the patient, as it were, "does not notice" touching one hand when two simultaneous touches are given.

Motor inattention - a violation of attention to motor acts is well known in the clinic of local lesions of the brain. It manifests itself in the case when the patient needs to perform movement with both hands.

Thinking disorders with local brain damage

If the left temporal region is affected, those semantic operations are violated that require a constant mediating participation of the speech connections. These difficulties arise in & quot; non-speech & quot; operations if you want to hold the speech material in memory. Therefore, such patients have violated the operations of an oral account.

With defeat of the parieto-occipital parts of the brain, the synthesis of individual elements in groups suffers and a whole set of defects associated with the disruption of spatial analysis and synthesis occurs, and difficulties in intellectual operations are revealed, for the solution of which it is necessary to isolate visual signs and their spatial relationships. Such violations are most clearly manifested in tasks on the "constructive intelligence" (such as the folding of a Link cube or Cobs cubes).

With lesions of the parieto-occipital parts of the left hemisphere, visual-shaped forms of thinking suffer that require performing operations on spatial analysis and synthesis, as well as understanding the semantics of quasi-spatial & quot; relations.

The central defect of intellectual activity in patients with lesions of the premotor divisions of the left hemisphere is a disruption of the dynamics of thinking, a violation of collapsed "mental actions". At the same time, spatial operations and understanding of logical and grammatical constructions are preserved.

The defeat of the frontal prefrontal regions of the brain is accompanied by serious disorders of intellectual processes, and the clinical phenomenology of these disorders is very diverse: from gross defects in intellectual activity to almost asymptomatic cases.

Thinking disorders in such patients are associated primarily with the disintegration of the very structure of intellectual activity (like any other mental activity), a violation of the structure.

Emotional disturbances with local brain lesions

Symptoms of emotion disorders that occur when the left and right frontal lobes of the brain are affected are signs of a violation of emotion by sign, intensity, and self-esteem.

To permanent emotional disorders are:

- neurosis-like syndrome (at the first stages of the disease);

- Depressive syndromes;

- hypomaniacal syndromes;

- manic-like syndromes;

- emotional changes in the form of aspontaneity

- impoverishment of emotions up to & quot; emotional paralysis & quot ;;

- Adociological changes on the background of massive mental disorders.

To paroxysmal affective disorders include:

- spontaneously arising affects that do not have a real reason (in the form of strong attacks of a sense of horror, anguish, fear, which are accompanied by visceral-vegetative reactions and hallucinations);

- affects that arise in response to a real cause, but are inadequate to it (develop against a background of persistent emotional and personality changes in the personality).

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