6.6. Patterns of education
Let's now consider the laws that are working in the educational component of the educational system. According to our definition, they will belong to specific (private), since they describe the connections only in the subsystem of education.
The patterns of upbringing are common, objective, permanent links existing between the phenomena and the processes of upbringing. In education, many laws operate simultaneously. Although at first glance it seems that in this process there is a lot of random, caused by coincidence, uncontrolled conditions, the processes and results of upbringing are deeply conditioned by the action of the main and not always visible forces. The patterns of education express the connections and dependencies between its main entities.
As in other processes, here there is a simultaneous and complex action of many connections. Some of them relate to certain aspects (parts, components) of the process, others cover the entire system, and there are also those whose actions go beyond the system of education and extend to all the processes of development and formation of man. The first, as we already know, are called private, the second - general, and the third - universal laws of education.
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The scope of general patterns extends to the entire system of the educational process. Recall that they express the connection between the most important, the largest components of this process. General patterns include, within the scope of their action, links in individual components of the system-particular (specific, specific) patterns. This is the hierarchy of regularities. In turn, the educational process as a part of a more general educational process is subject to its specific laws. It also shows the connections that are characteristic of even larger systems - development and formation, and these systems themselves are components of a common global system - of human life. This again implies the enormous complexity and multifacetedness of education. Naturally, the general patterns that will be analyzed do not reflect all the relationships; they are only a small part of the dependencies that pierce the system.
For the practice of upbringing, it is most important to associate the productivity (efficiency, quality) of the educational process with those components that have the greatest influence on it. So, on the one hand, we fix a large component (influence, condition, action), and on the other - the productivity of the upbringing process.
The productivity of the upbringing process depends on factors such as:
1. The existing educational relations. In the pedagogical process between the educators and pupils there are certain relationships that play a very important role. Often the attitude of the pupil to pedagogical influences becomes decisive. From the attitude towards upbringing and the educator depends the productivity of this process. In the course of the upbringing process, the views of pupils are gradually formed, their life position, motives of behavior are the whole complex of causes and conditions that will greatly and constantly influence the process. Having formed, relations will determine the level, strength and significance of educational influence and interaction, the development of the process and its productivity. Educational relations can be negative when the pupil does not perceive the educator or his right to educate, neutral and positive. Negative attitude must first be corrected to positive, and then, relying on the latter, to achieve the goal. The pupil, who from the very beginning took the position and demands of the educator, gets used to them and does not question them, the established order of behavior seems reasonable to him. The process of the pupil with a different point of view is developing quite differently. That is why the wise command of the people's pedagogy: if you want to bring up well, seek the placement of the pupil is nothing but an intuitively understood action of the considered law.
2. Relevance of the goal and the organization of actions to achieve it. The concept of & quot; organization & quot; includes the ordering of all actions, relationships, forms and methods of work. In the educational process are also organized special effects that neutralize, suppress negative behavior of pupils. If the organization of the educational process does not correspond to the intended goal, then the educational process does not succeed. And vice versa: the more expedient is the organization of activities promoting the education of necessary qualities, the more effectively the forms, means and methods of upbringing are used, the better they correspond to the tasks assigned, the higher the productivity of the educational process.
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3. The correspondence of education to the realities of life. Sometimes this pattern is called the dependence of upbringing on social practice. We have repeatedly examined its action on numerous examples. Education of thousands of threads associated with life, is intended to adapt a person to life and therefore can not exist or develop beyond this connection. The educational process is characterized by the fact that the student thinks and acts in it, receives knowledge and acquires practical experience, assimilates norms and rules of social behavior and immediately checks them in practice. And what a disappointment young people get when they are convinced of the discrepancy between knowledge and life, words and deeds! If someone wants to change their lives, existing relationships for the better, then it should be done very carefully and gradually. Separation from practice immediately reveals the inconsistency of education. It is strong only when it draws strength from the surrounding life. If there is a discrepancy between upbringing and life, life wins, shamming the upbringing that is torn from it.
4. The effect of objective and subjective conditions (factors). The subjective conditions (factors) are known to include:. Teachers and students, the interaction between them, established relationships and other objective conditions for the development of the educational process can be considered as material and technical, social, sanitary and others. In each case, a complex web of subjective and objective conditions attached to education of the unique character and very strong effect on its productivity. To obtain an educational product of a given quality, proper conditions must be created.
5. The intensity of the processes of upbringing and self-education. Self-education, as we already know, is a pupil's activity aimed at improving oneself. In the process of self-education the schoolboy acts as his own teacher. Self-education depends on the content of life of schoolchildren, their interests, relationships characteristic of a particular age.
Education as an external influence and self-education as the internal construction of one's personality develops in indissoluble unity. Self-education accompanies education and at the same time becomes its result. It is clear that the overall productivity of education will largely depend on the intensity (strength, speed) of both processes. For the success of self-education, it is important for the pupil to learn how to correctly assess himself, to notice his positive qualities and shortcomings, and by will to overcome obstacles that interfere with realizing life plans. All this is the result of upbringing, which is more successful the more the pupil himself seeks to improve himself
6. The activity of the participants in the educational process. The more actively the process of pedagogical interaction develops, the more actively its participants - the educator and pupils, the more they work together to achieve the goal, the higher the productivity of the educational process . In fact, when we talk about the activity of participants, we mean by this the strength and speed of the process.
7. The effectiveness of the processes associated with upbringing - learning, development. If several processes develop simultaneously and in a relationship, then the acceleration or deceleration of some immediately affects the acceleration and deceleration of others. The development of a schoolboy is expressed in the qualitative and quantitative growth of actions, the formation of new qualities, character traits. Education improves development, which paves the way for more successful upbringing. If these links are violated, then serious difficulties arise, which most unfavorably affect the development, training, and upbringing of the student.
8. The scope and quality of the educational impact. The pedagogical impact of educators on pupils presupposes a purposeful organization of their activities, communication, systematic and planned development of the intellectual, emotional and volitional spheres in accordance with the goal. The higher the quality of pedagogical influence, the greater its volume (but not above some pre-established optimum), the higher the productivity of upbringing. The neglect and lack of adolescence of adolescents is largely due to the fact that in due time they "did not receive" upbringing. They did not do their parents, there was not enough time and effort at the school.
9. Intensity of exposure to the internal sphere & quot; pupil (GI Shchukin). By the & quot; inner sphere & quot; denotes a system of motives, needs, emotions, intelligence of the individual, considered as an integral entity. The influence of the environment, refracted through the experience, the needs of the schoolboy, becomes his personal treasure. It is in the educational process that external influences are transformed into the student's internal achievements. If the influences are strong enough, they meet the needs of the child, if they cause the activity of the student himself, then the transformation of goals into the motives of the personality itself is much easier and faster.
10. Correspondence of educational influence to the level of upbringing. Nobody reaches higher levels of education at once. It is necessary to gradually and gradually take the student to the prescribed levels, relying on the solid ground of what has already been achieved by education. Breaking away from the existing level of education, upbringing immediately & quot; hangs & quot; in uncertainty. There are many aspects here. It is possible, for example, to point out the case when the pupil's intellectual potential does not coincide with other parameters of development. Then we become witnesses of how the student, easily and freely operating with theoretical knowledge, is clumsy and clumsy, performing elementary practical actions, simple labor operations, physical exercises.
11. Intensity and quality of communication between pupils. If the law of mutual learning operates in education, then the law of mutual education is manifested in upbringing, which influences the formation of personality precisely because peers and friends educate. In this case, the goals and content of upbringing are not only better understood, but are often accepted uncritically and immediately. "With whom you are led, from that and you will be typed", - the folk wisdom confirms this law. We will once again recall this pattern when we consider modern technologies of upbringing. One of the potent modifications of partner technology, distributed in the modern world, is called "Equal-to-equal." The bottom line is that teenagers are educating each other. The one who will become a tutor is specially trained.
12. Harmonization of the goals of the individual and the goals of society (family, school, media, etc.). When an individual and the whole society have the same goals, moving in the same direction in the same direction, supporting each other, the effectiveness of the education of each individual person and the upbringing of the whole society will be high. The upbringing in which the goals of man and society do not coincide does not reach a high level. Then personal and public education mutually weaken each other. This law was well known and used in the past. The church was vigilant to ensure that among the believers there were no heretics, in all countries people who did not support this or that system were squeezed out of the state (for example, dissidents in the former USSR were expelled from the country). From the schools, the violators of the established order were ruthlessly excluded.
The general regularity is summarized in Fig. 27.
The productivity of upbringing depends on:
established educational relations
the correspondence of the goal and the organization of actions to achieve it
the correspondence of education to the realities of life
actions of objective and subjective conditions (factors)
the intensity of the processes of upbringing and self-education
Activities of participants in the educational process
the effectiveness of the accompanying processes - learning, development
volume and quality of pedagogical impact
the intensity of the impact on the & quot; inner sphere & quot; pupil
Conformity of educational influence to level of education/
intensity and quality of communication between pupils
alignment of the goals of the individual and the goals of society
Fig. 27. Dependence of the productivity of education on factors
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