The structure of the subject area of bioethics
Modern bioethics is divided into many directions. The boundaries between them are very conditional, since these directions closely interact with each other. Moreover, as bioethics is rapidly developing, many regions are in a state of formation and have not yet received their own name and design. Therefore, the question of the structure of the subject area of bioethics is rather complicated.
The terms & quot; bioethics & quot; and & quot; biomedical ethics & quot; often used as synonyms. In our textbook, we will even consider them synonymous.
There is another opinion, according to which bioethics is a name for a more general area within which it is possible to select more specific and specialized disciplines.
From this point of view, the structure of the subject area of bioethics will look something like this.
Bioethics is the most common area representing the ethics of attitudes toward life in general, including the biosphere as a whole, as well as to biosystems and living organisms (in fact this understanding of bioethics is close to that proposed by R. V. Potter). In particular, such areas as bioethics of the environment and biosafety (a direction closely associated primarily with the development of genetic engineering) can be included here.
Biomedical ethics - is an interdisciplinary sphere with a focus on the person, his life, health, dignity, quality of life, etc. - everything related to medicine and health. The subject of biomedical ethics - is a discussion of the moral problems of medical science and practice, as well as related areas.
Medical ethics is an integral part of biomedical ethics. The traditional subject of medical ethics is the ethical side of the relationship between the doctor and the patient. Modern medical ethics analyzes the moral problems of medical activity in the narrow sense (doctor's and patient's relations, the basic moral principles of medical practice, relations within the medical community, etc.).
Clinical ethics - this term is often considered a synonym for medical ethics. However, clinical ethics is also sometimes understood in a more specific sense - as an ethical (or ethical-legal) analysis of the real situations of medical practice, the study of specific clinical cases (so-called cases), analysis of the adoption of specific clinical decisions, the analysis of collisions arising in medical work and .p.
In addition, within the framework of biomedical ethics, a number of relatively independent, more or less formalized directions, or sub-specialties can be identified. These include, for example, the ethics of biomedical research (research bioethics), pharmaceutical bioethics , bioethics in psychiatry, reproductive bioethics (which deals with moral problems interventions in human reproduction), gerontoethics (studying ethical problems of helping elderly people), etc.
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