If the logical forms of the concept were indeed dead, invalid and indifferent receptacles of ideas or thoughts, then their knowledge would be absolutely unnecessary for the truth, a matter without which it would be completely possible to do.
The thought of a person is characterized both by content (information richness, the totality of ideas it carries), and by form (structure, organization, way of expressing content). The initial, generally valid logical form of thinking is the concept. In Russian about 500 000 words. Practically a person does not use this vocabulary. In the thesaurus, i.е. active language of a cultural person, only 5000-8000 words, i.е. words, the meaning of which he knows and often uses in everyday life, in his professional activities. Passive language contains those words, the meaning of which he knew or knows, but uses very rarely or does not use at all. A civilized person of this number of words is enough to express his thoughts.
Of course, from this average rate there are deviations in one direction or the other. The specialists calculated that A.S. Pushkin used 21 000 words in his work, and the character of the satirical novel I. Ilf and E. Petrov "Twelve Chairs" Ellochka Shchukin easily managed 30 ("famous", "darkness", "boy", "taxa", "hamite", "ho-ho", etc.).
Words denote objects, circumstances, actions, properties of things, relations between them. A significant part of a person's vocabulary is concepts.
The essence, structure and types of concepts
The concept is a thought that reflects the essential common and distinctive features of a particular object or class of homogeneous objects. It is one of the basic forms of abstract thinking, scientific cognition.
It is important to understand that the concept reflects the essential, general and distinctive features, since only in this case, speaking about the subject, one can answer the question: what is it? In his time, Plato tried to define a person as a "bipedal creature without feathers". Faced with criticism from the listeners of his academy, he included two more traits in the definition: he has wide nails and flat feet. It is easy to see that these signs are not significant and do not allow us to distinguish a person from the class of animals that may have such characteristics, for example, monkeys, penguins.
The concept of & quot; man & quot; will become adequate; corresponding to reality, if it includes signs: the highest representative of the animal world; possesses consciousness, speech, spiritual values, is capable of creating tools of labor; can abstractly think and act purposefully. These signs are essential for a person, emphasize its qualitative originality.
The concept is fixed and expressed with the help of words and phrases. The word serves as the form, the shell of the concept, and the concept expresses the semantic content of the word. However, the word and the concept do not always correspond unambiguously to each other. There are words-homonyms, that sound the same, but have different meanings. For example, the word & quot; tender & quot; can correspond to values: the right to mediation won by the competition; the rear part of a locomotive or a special design car, attached directly to the locomotive and intended for placing water, fuel and lubricants, tools, wiping rags on it; a small one-mast sailing sports boat; flat-bottom motor vessel of the cut-off type for in-port transportation; screw cords for pulling cables or wires.
Often, synonym words are used that have different sounds, but have the same meaning. For example, the words & quot; Homeland & quot ;, & quot; Homeland & quot ;, & quot; Fatherland & quot; they sound different, but they all have one and the same meaning. The ambiguity of words can underlie the logical errors of identifying different concepts and distinguishing identical concepts.
The formation of concepts is carried out using logical techniques, which include: analysis, synthesis, comparison, abstraction, generalization.
Analysis - the mental division of the features of the object into significant (that is, internally inherent in the object, consistently repeated under different conditions of existence of the object) and insignificant the subject only occasionally, under certain specific circumstances and not inherent in the subject permanently).
Synthesis - a mental connection into a single whole of the essential common and distinctive features of the object. For example, such signs for the concept of & quot; money & quot; are: to be a special commodity, which is spontaneously separated from the commodity world; serve as a universal equivalent; be a measure of value.
Comparison - the mental establishment of the similarity or difference of objects on essential grounds, which allows them to be combined into sets, classes, to which the corresponding concepts apply.
Abstraction - a mental selection of the essential features of an object and a distraction from the nonessential.
Generalization - the mental unification of individual characteristics or objects in a certain concept.
The concept as a form of thinking has its own structure. Regardless of the concrete meaning, each concept includes two main elements: content and volume (Figure 2.1).The content of the concept (sometimes referred to as intensional) is a collection of essential features conceivable in a given concept.
So, in the concept of & quot; electrolyte & quot; as a substance, the solution of which conducts electric current, the following significant features are distinguished:
- the state of the substance (solution);
is the electrical conductivity.
The essence of this concept includes an exhaustive set of characteristics that distinguish this object from the class of other objects.
The scope of the concept (sometimes called the "extensional") is a set, the class of homogeneous objects conceivable in this concept. Or, otherwise: a collection of homogeneous objects, to which the content of the given concept extends. So, the concept of "crime" extends to all acts representing a public danger, guilty and prohibited by criminal law.
The concept of "student GUU" but the content means:
a) be a student;
b) study not anywhere, but in this school.
And in terms of volume it covers a lot of people who are officially (based on the order of the rector on enrolling in an institution of higher learning) are studying at our university.
Content and volume are the main logical characteristics of the concept. This means that the logical analysis of concepts unfolds around them.
Fig. 2.1. The essence and structure of the concept
The content and scope of the concept are interrelated. The relationship is due to the law of the inverse relationship. This means that as the content of the concept increases, its volume decreases and, conversely, as its volume increases, its content decreases. The change in the content and volume of the concept occurs by adding or removing the features of the object. In this way, restrictions or generalizations of concepts are carried out.
Take the concept of & quot; paper & quot; and we will increase its content by adding distinctive features: "paper" & quot; security & quot; - & quot; share & quot; - & quot; preferred share & quot; - & quot; preferred registered share & quot; "privileged registered share belonging to Mr. LG". As a result of such actions, the volume was reduced to a single concept, in which a separate subject is reflected.
If, on the contrary, the content is reduced, discarding the features of the object, then the scope of the concept will increase. For example: & quot; author of the novel & quot; Crime & Punishment & quot; & quot; - & quot; Great Russian writer of the XIX century. & Quot; - & quot; great Russian writer & quot; - & quot; Russian writer & quot; - & quot; writer & quot; - & quot; person who can read and write & quot; - & quot; man & quot;.
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