Dictionaries as a reflection of a lexical system
Lexical wealth and system relations of the Russian language are reflected in various dictionaries: explanatory and dictionaries of foreign words, dictionaries of synonyms and antonyms, homonyms and paronyms, dictionaries of new words and meanings, obsolete words, etymological and phraseological dictionaries. The complexity of the combination of words is reflected in the dictionaries of the difficulties of the Russian language, dictionaries of management and compatibility. To understand all the nuances of someone else's statement and make your own speech more expressive will help the dictionaries of epithets, comparisons, symbols.
Ideas for the compilation and editing of texts are ideographic, semantic, thematic dictionaries in which the material is not in accordance with the alphabetical order of words, but by the nature of the reflection of phenomena of reality (for example, man: body parts , < mental state and emotions, social status , etc.). In describing the lexical system of the language, we have already encountered dictionaries of different types: explanatory, dictionaries of antonyms and synonyms, homonyms and paronyms, epithets and meta </p>
FOR. Dictionaries of this kind, coming from language to meaning, are usually more or less known. Another thing - ideographic dictionaries, which offer a way from the meaning to the language. Such dictionaries, unfortunately, are very few to anyone, although they can prove to be very valuable in the compilation and editing of the text.
Phraseological units in the text (idioms, collocations, phrase-combinations)
Idioms and collocations
Along with individual words, the phrase " phraseological units " also has a nominative function. Like words, phraseological units are reproduced, not created in speech. Phraseological unit differs from the word in that it consists of several elements, while the meaning of phraseology does not add up from the sum of the values of the words entering into it. Phraseologisms have one common meaning, referring to the whole phrase. For example, the expression tighten the belt is understood as a single whole and means save, and the phraseology sacrifice means donate.
Phraseological units have a constant composition and general meaning. According to the nature of the expression of meanings and the structure of the utterance among idioms, idioms, collocations, winged words and expressions are singled out.
Idioms ( phraseological connections and phraseological unity ) are stable expressions whose meaning is not correlated with the meanings of the words included in this combination. In other words, if all the words in phraseology lost their meaning, and the combination as a whole acquired a new meaning, this phraseology is called an idiom. It is necessary to know the meanings of idioms, their stylistic and connotative coloring, in order to avoid mistakes of use in those or other speech situations. Idioms are usually expressive, they carry bright images and emotions, and their use enlivens speech. Wed, for example: Our chief made a remark to all of us - Our boss arranged us a waspish, idiom arrange a washer in a conversational speech conveys emotions, attitude towards event of the speaker and makes the speech vivid.
Collocation ( phraseological combinations ) are combinations of words in which the choice of one component is determined by meaning, and the choice of the second is given by tradition (as in idioms). In the system of phraseological units, collocations occupy the middle position between idioms (absolutely indivisible combinations) and winged words (they consist of words with free meanings). The reason for the difficulties in using collocations lies in the unpredictability of combinations based on the knowledge of individual components. For the correct use of combinations like play role or be responsible little to know the
The meaning of each noun and verb, it is necessary to remember the combination entirely, because otherwise mistakes occur, not only among foreigners, but also among Russian speakers who rarely use these combinations. Errors of this kind lead to an undesirable comic effect that can destroy the emotionally expressive thrust of the text as a whole. For example, if in idiomatic expression I am not responsible I replace the first word with the synonymic verb undress, the phraseology is destroyed, the meaning of the expression is literalized, which causes laughter: I disclaim responsibility .
Collocation, unlike idioms, which are used primarily in colloquial speech, are represented in texts of different styles: take measures, attach importance, deep understanding , etc. They cause the greatest difficulty in the compilation of texts (in writing, speaking) among foreigners and those who do not have a good command of a certain style (for example, book speech in general, formal business style, etc.).
Stable combinations can be found in the explanatory dictionary; for more detailed information, one should refer to special dictionaries of unfree combinations, collocations, or at least to phraseological dictionaries.
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