Functional (technological) relationships
In organizations, people's interaction is subordinated to the logic of labor. Interaction is an interactive process that involves the exchange of actions. In the organization, the interaction takes the form of joint or coordinated actions of people, pre-planned and organized to achieve a common goal.
The necessity of following in the work and behavior of a certain technology requires the use of management of a set of instructions that authorize certain actions and prohibit others. For failure to follow instructions, sanctions are applied, which is important for preventing violations in the technological process. Functional relations are based on the distribution of functions (horizontal specialization) between target groups (for example, brigades, sections, shops, departments). The structure and modes of action of these groups are usually documented by regulations, instructions and other official documents. Thus, the behavior of people and their interaction in the process of labor are built largely on the basis of regulated formal relations. Labor interaction is realized on the basis of the distribution of work and responsibilities, from the behavioral point of view - on the basis of the distribution of roles. In the production (technological) process, people exchange actions, while each has a strictly defined role.
Business processes in the organization are carried out with the help of some set of labor operations carried out by the members of the organization as an aggregate employee. These operations are performed in accordance with the requirements of the technology of labor and are fixed for each workplace. The organization creates a system of jobs, each of which is characterized by a certain set of requirements for employees.
Functional relations are based on the division of labor and its cooperation. Co-operation, or cooperative interaction, means coordination individual forces of the participants - ordering, combining, summing up these forces. Cooperation is necessary in joint activities, generated by its social nature. Collective activity involves the separation of a single process of activity between participants and the combination of the direct result of each participant's activity with the end result of joint activity. The means of such a connection are, first of all, the cooperative relations that develop in the course of joint activity. An important indicator of the tightness of cooperative interaction is the inclusion in it of all participants in the process.
For effective organizational interaction, it is very important that functional (technological) relations become constructive business human relations. In the process of collective work such relations can be built only if they correspond to the social and psychological needs of people. This is facilitated by the way of organization of joint activity chosen by management.
In modern organizations, the command concept has become widespread. Its central idea is to entrust a group (an autonomous team) with some special task to create or produce goods, provide services with sufficient autonomy, resources and collective responsibility for the results. Teams meet regularly to discuss the current state of production and the order of distribution of work. Supervision is usually entrusted to the leader of the team, who is either appointed or allowed to move forward. The levels of independence provided vary. In some cases, the team has the authority to hire and fire people, set wage rates, determine working methods and manage inventories. The decisions are made using a computerized system that provides up-to-date information on the team's performance. In other cases, the scope of decisions is concentrated only on issues of production, quality and methods of work. Working teams are self-governing, so a carefully designed system of joint discussions is needed. Important in the team and study each other. The use of the command concept implies special training. Employees should learn to behave in a group and acquire additional technical skills so that everyone understands and can perform the work of someone else. Paying for skills gives teams the incentive to continue to expand their competencies.
To ensure successful functional (technological) relations, management needs to make efforts in the direction of maintaining a spirit of cooperation, mutual assistance and mutual understanding. The most important component of interaction is mutual understanding between the participants. Mutual understanding implies a correct interpretation of the goals, motives, attitudes, roles of other people, as well as respect for them, the consent to act in accordance with them, the desire to share common goals.
Positive interaction of people in organizations is based on cooperation. Working together, people get used to each other. They have common views and common interests; they are subject to the same unofficial norms of behavior, for example mutual assistance, mutual assistance; people can communicate and work; they can be friends with families. As a result, labor interaction grows into a more complex phenomenon - social interaction. Formal (service) relations within a narrow set of roles, behaviors, norms, motivations, needs are thus complemented by informal - personal, comprehensive. Positive interpersonal relations of the partnership are formed, friendly, friendly relations. In them, people do not play role roles, but freely manifest themselves as individuals. In content, interpersonal relations are more multidimensional, more varied, deeper than formal organizational relations. For the formation of interpersonal relationships, it takes a long time and regular interaction of people. Such relationships are possible only on the basis of personal sympathies or antipathies, the exchange of activities or information in a small team. In organizations at the level of interpersonal relations, it is possible to solve both personal and business issues.
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