In the textbooks are sometimes given lists of personal properties, distinguished by different authors. But the number of these properties is already approaching two thousand, and attempts to find the intersection of lists and at least a few common qualities or traits so to no avail. The role of early childhood experience in forming habits of leadership behavior was shown, as well as the lack of guarantees of leadership of such people in any group and any situation. Modern concepts of leadership development are paying enough attention to the formation of the adequacy of the leader's behavior, which, undoubtedly, is connected with the development of his personal qualities.
This parameter is very important, since adequate behavior is necessarily adaptive and takes into account the situation. And this situation is determined by the peculiarities of the group or individual followers at different stages of the development of the organization, and the specifics of the tasks facing it, and the peculiarity of the organizational environment.
For example, consider the intelligence leader. Is it a personal property or behavior? How much should he distinguish the leader from the followers? In what sphere will the leader's intellect be the most significant? Let's say that the leader is not smarter than everyone else. Will this prevent him from being an effective leader? It turns out, no. With average intelligence, a good leader perfectly organizes his subordinate colleagues, and together they achieve excellent results! And it is possible to organize them qualitatively thanks to distributed leadership or leadership mysticism & quot ;? In particular, thanks to emotional intelligence ! So what is important is not behavior, but leadership characteristics? No, as D. Goleman argues, the essence of emotional intelligence manifests itself in adequate communication (ie, in the implementation of leadership behavior): the leader feels and sees perfectly the state and needs of people (including his own), on the basis of which he corrects his actions, and the group headed by him achieves the necessary results.
Before moving on to a more in-depth study of the leadership behaviors that will be described in paragraph 5.2, we will return from leadership theories to management theories. If the leader is often influenced by a power that is difficult to explain, but is felt by all, or charisma, without worrying about observing any principles or technologies, the trained manager will try to apply correctly management technologies and management principles, which can result in a better result than the first, the result.
In modern English-language work on management, it often refers to four functions of the manager, denoted by the divided abbreviation P-O-L-C ( Planning , Organizing, Leading, Controlling. Leadership, more precisely leadership, in this case is treated as one of the functions or management processes (manuals ) along with & quot; scheduling & quot ;, & quot; organizing & quot; and & quot; control & quot ;. At the same time, there is no motivation process among the main functions. According to this logic, the motivation process is part of the lead. Also, the processes of qualitative leadership include working with groups and teams, building communications, making decisions and ... leadership ( leadership ) of the manager2.
In order to enhance the leadership competencies of managers, they are taught the skills of effective leadership. And one of the proven tools to ensure this effectiveness is the correct statement by the head of goals to his subordinates as part of the planning function. This tool is known to all professional managers, and it is called the SMART principle. The authors of this principle consider P. Meier (sometimes called the founder of the personal development industry), as well as J. Doran, who began to popularize this principle in 1981. The most common interpretation of these five characteristics of a qualitatively set goal is as follows. The goal should be:
• Specific - accurately and specifically formulated;
• Measurable - measurable;
• Attainable, Achievable - attainable;
• Relevant, Realistic - current, realistic;
• Time-bound - is precisely tied to time boundaries.
However, now in Europe, a new interpretation of the SMART principle is used, which extends the capabilities of this technology management and makes it possible to turn a manager into a leader. Can humanity create a lunar rover or a rover? Yes. But for most organizations, will this goal be realistic? A current, and achievable? By combining these similar properties of the goal in a characteristic realistic, & quot; is released & quot; letter A. What does it mean?
Attractive ! The goal should be attractive and inspiring ! And this is exactly what the leaders are doing: they are carried away by some purpose and carry people behind them. However, those managers who want to be manipulators, which can also increase their power over people, are not themselves inspired by this or that goal, but simply skillfully zombie subordinates using ideology that they themselves do not share.
The peculiarity of leaders who personally aspire to the goal to which they lead people is well reflected by the classic aphorisms about "great leaders" who always look forward, not backward. In this case, if they are really great, then "back feel" their followers. Moreover: the quote quoted by Confucius says that with a real leader, people say: "We did it ourselves." Is not this the ideal of a modern leader-manager?!
Concluding the presentation of the discussion topic on the similarities and differences in management and leadership, we invite those wishing to immerse themselves in a modern English-language discussion of this topic. So, on leadershipturn.com you can not only read the author's assertion of several books about leadership and leadership of Nick McCormick: "Good leaders are good managers and vice versa", but even feel involved in the formation of a new concept: leader/manager = = leadager .
How to ...
We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)