Chapter 1. Enterprise personnel as a management object
1.1. Evolution of conceptual approaches to personnel management
Managing people has a long history. However, scientific management was formed only in the XX century.
There are different approaches to the classification of areas of human resources management. However, the most common classification of concepts of personnel management on the basis of management schools. For this reason, the concepts school differ!)! scientific management, an administrative school, a school of human relations in management and a behavioral school, and a mathematical school.
Shkot scientific management is represented by the work Ф. Taylor, F. and L. Gilbert, G. Emerson, and Mr. Grata. The efforts of these scientists were aimed at streamlining work processes based on the study of work. Each operation was considered in detail, all unnecessary movements were eliminated, there was a desire to force the worker to work in the mode of the machine. Representatives of the school of scientific management first applied in practice the timekeeping of working hours, a photo of work processes and a working day. The personality of the worker and his experience were of little interest to them. The concept of personnel management of this school was based on such provisions as:
o individual responsibility of the employee for performance of service assignments;
o separation of areas of activity;
o priority of individual forms of organizing and stimulating work;
o the use of rational methods and methods of labor by the criterion of minimum time for their implementation;
o rationing of labor;
o priority of economic incentives;
o an autocratic style of management.
The administrative school allowed to develop and continue the concepts of the school of scientific management. The largest representative of this school was A. Fayol, in the work "General and Industrial Management" (1916) formulated key principles and management functions for a large industrial corporation. He referred to the main technical, commercial, financial, insurance, accounting and administrative functions. The most important principles of management A. Fayol believed: the division of labor, power, discipline, unity of government, subordination of private interests to the general, reward, hierarchy, justice. The scientist paid special attention to such elements of management as foresight, organization, administration, coordination, control.The well-known German sociologist M. Weber, who described the concept of an ideally formalized organization called the bureaucracy , was recognized as the theoretician of the administrative school.
The essence of this concept is expressed in the following characteristics:
o division of labor, in which power and responsibility are clearly defined for each employee;
o all posts are distributed according to the hierarchy of authority;
o all members of the organization are selected according to their qualifications;
o officials are appointed, not elected;
o Administrative officials are not the owners of the company in which they serve;
o officials work for a fixed wage;
o all members of the organization are subject to uniform rules that are impersonal, but determine discipline, control and regulate their activities.
Thus, M. Weber justified the need for specialization, hierarchy and management rules for large organizations and became one of the first theorists of the organizational approach to personnel management.
The theorists of the school of scientific management and administrative school worked autonomously, without any general program and coordination of research. However, their work has much in common, which makes it possible to combine them into a single classical school of management. First of all, they tried, based on personal observations and their own experience, to create their own universal management principles aimed at streamlining production.
In addition, they investigated mainly the division of labor, the gradualness and linkage of management, the structure of the organization and the limits of government. Finally, they were not much interested in social relations in production and management. They did not pay due attention to the human factor.
In the 1930s. The concepts of the neoclassical school (or the school of human relations) were formed. The largest theorist of this school was a professor at Harvard University, the author of the theory of human relations in the management of E. Mayo. He came to the conclusion that the work itself means less to the worker than his social and psychological position in production.
So, E. Mayo was convinced that the worker would work more productively if his specific social and psychological needs were met. The most important elements of his theory were the system of mutual relations and information, a system of conversations with workers, the study of group norms of behavior and informal groups.
The scientist came to the conclusion that the development of a worker is estimated not so much by his physical abilities, as by group norms of behavior. He urged the leaders, taking any managerial decisions, to focus primarily on people. Taylorism, he considered incompatible with the nature of man and his freedom.However, from the standpoint of rationalizing production and maximizing profit, many of the theses of the Mayo theory seemed to be poorly grounded, and the theory itself was in demand after the Second World War, when the forced introduction of the achievements of science and technology into the practice of economic activity led to an increase in the role of the human factor.
The theory of human relations in management has been further developed, after the Second World War, in the concepts of behavioral (behaviorist) school. The theorists of this school consider the improvement of the use of human resources as the main reserve of increasing the economic efficiency of its functioning. Based on this, they analyzed the management style, leadership, motivation of labor as the most important tools to improve the efficiency of the modern firm. The largest theorists of this school are D. MacGregor, R. Laikert, F, Herzberg.
After the Second World War, exact sciences began to develop at an accelerated pace. Based on their achievements, the concepts of the mathematical school began to form. Supporters of this school sought to formalize the management process, describe it using mathematical models, calculate computer models and choose the optimal development option.
At the end of XX century. the concept of human capital was formed and widely disseminated. The authors of this concept are the economists of the Chicago school T. Schultz and Mr. Becker - proceeded in their judgments from the economic approach to man; This approach used the ideas of rational expectations, i.e. people make decisions with maximum benefit for themselves.
From the point of view of the authors of the concept of human capital, the knowledge of people in themselves is not yet human capital. They become capital only after the sale of labor, when they begin to generate income. At the same time at the individual level, the form of income is wages, royalties, etc.
The theory of human capital is based on the following provisions: 1) human capital manifests itself in the sale of labor; 2) the growth of human capital should promote the growth of labor productivity and production; 3) the expedient use of human capital should lead to an increase in the incomes of workers; 4) income growth stimulates investments in their health and education.
The concept of human capital is an important step towards social partnership between the staff and the administration of the organization.
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