Political Management and Political Marketing
The concept of & quot; political marketing & quot; used in science and political practice since the 70's. XX century. to designate a certain set of methods and methods for solving political problems within the institutional framework of democracy and in the conditions of political competition. Initially, marketing technologies emerged in the economic sphere as technologies for studying and satisfying the demand for goods and services.
The emergence of political marketing was predetermined by the following factors:
• First, the success of economic science in explaining the behavior of the population in the consumer market. In the work published in 1957 by E. Downes, "The Economic Theory of Democracy" The analytical tool used by scientists to explain the behavior of homo economicus, was transferred to the political sphere. The emergence of a new "politico-economic" quot; directions in political science contributed to the growing popularity of the theory of market relations among political scientists, who increasingly began to describe politics in terms of the market. It is generally accepted that politicians, parties, state bureaucratic structures that offer a certain "political goods" act as sellers in the political market. citizens, voters, acting as a buyer. As a political commodity, the images of leaders and political organizations, programs and political ideas, management styles and models for solving problems facing the society are usually called. The commodity is exchanged for the support of the population, for the votes of the voters, viewed as a kind of analogue of money, which are both the main means of exchange in economic markets, and the aim of the seller striving to maximize profits;
• Secondly, the great popularity of commercial marketing, which in the second half of XX century. He gained the status of an independent discipline, capable of offering professional market leaders scientifically based recommendations for the competent promotion of goods and services. A peculiar impetus for the formation of political marketing was the opinion expressed by the founders of marketing in the commercial sphere about the possibility of applying the basic principles of promoting goods and services to non-commercial spheres of activity;
Third, the development of the field of political counseling, its gradual transformation into the sphere of professional services to assist politicians in election campaigns. The specialists engaged in this field encountered the exhaustion of the possibilities of traditional propaganda and agitation, they needed new approaches to designing the image of the politician, new methods and ways of organizing the election campaign, so the success of marketing technologies ensuring the effective behavior of the seller in a competitive environment could not help attracting them attention.
Thanks to marketing, such technologies as studying the political preferences of voters, segmenting the electorate, positioning the goods, as well as using specific methods that take into account the perceptions, group interests and preferences, are used in the formation of demand in political practice. In the literature, some political campaigns are described as marketing campaigns, for example, election campaigns and image campaigns.
Despite the penetration of marketing into the space of political management relations, its subject field is already an objective field of political management, not only in the broad but narrow sense of the word. Marketing technologies are technologies of the market environment. Their use in politics suggests that citizens have a real right to a political choice. If there are serious restrictions on political rights and freedoms in the country, if the ruling elite is the only player in the arena of political struggle, then political marketing as a method of conducting a political campaign in a competitive environment loses its meaning. But this does not mean that in such a country there is no need to conduct campaigns to create political images, to provide mass support for state decisions, etc.
In addition, marketing campaigns are usually aimed at obtaining a relatively quick return in the form of votes of voters on election day or in the form of supporting a political program at a specific time of its discussion. However, in politics it is necessary to solve the tasks of ensuring long-term support of political forces. Outside the field of political marketing are also political campaigns conducted with the aim of forming a positive attitude of citizens to state institutions and institutions; lobbying activities that involve putting pressure on people who make public decisions; political campaigns initiated by political actors with a view to introducing certain political attitudes and value preferences into the mass consciousness, etc.
Thus, political management, even in a narrow sense, is a broader concept that encompasses the entire spectrum of managerial relations emerging in politics aimed at achieving specific political goals. However, thanks to the efforts of political marketers, there has been an enrichment of the content of managerial activity in politics, and the technologies that have been tested in marketing organically included in the political managerial practice.
How to ...
We made your life easier with putting together a big number of articles and guidelines on how to plan and write different types of assignments (Essay, Research Paper, Dissertation etc)