The concept and characteristics of needs - Fundamentals of General Psychology

Concept and characteristics of needs

Often as a synonym for the word motivation, the term "needs" is used. A need is called a state of human need in certain conditions of life and activity or material objects. The need, like any state of a person, is always connected with the presence of a person's sense of satisfaction or dissatisfaction. All living beings have a need for this, and the living nature differs from the inanimate one. The need activates the body, stimulates its behavior, aimed at finding what is required.

The quantity and quality of needs that living beings have depends on the level of their organization, on the image and conditions of life, on the place occupied by the corresponding organism on the evolutionary ladder. The least demand for plants that need only in certain biochemical and physical conditions of existence. The most diverse needs in humans.

Scientists point to a whole set of needs that can influence human behavior: security needs, the need for affiliation, the need for respect, the need for independence and independence, the need for achievement, the need for power.

Security needs.

In the biological program of any living being there is a need to avoid pain and threats. Human beings also tend to avoid potentially harmful factors that threaten health and well-being. Some people are concerned about this issue - they are people with a high need for security. They tend to pay a lot of attention to any elements of the environment that are directly or even remotely related to any incidents, natural disasters, illnesses, crimes, wars, etc. They are particularly concerned about the reliability of the official position or the reduction of income, seek to find work with the greatest guarantees of employment. For them, the most attractive factors that stimulate activity may be lifelong hiring, guaranteed wages, high insurance and a well-deserved pension.

In a professional environment where a person can be dismissed for incompetence, people with a high security need will do everything possible to hedge against any trouble. They can avoid taking risky decisions for which they will have to bear responsibility, will strictly follow the rules and regulations, without showing any initiative. They are frightened by goals and tasks related to the unknown and new in life, with the risk and possibility of failure.

People with a low need for security will willingly take up dangerous and risky tasks, if only because it allows them to test themselves and feel the fullness of life. Such people, as a rule, pay little attention to their health and safety, do not particularly think about the consequences, considering at times that they are insured by fate from ills and diseases.

Need for affiliation.

Most tend to the desire for a warm and friendly relationship with other people, in which a person gives the warmth of his soul, taking in response the friendship and warmth of another person. However, this need is peculiar to people in different degrees. There are people extremely sensitive to someone else's attention, the slightest signs of rejection or coldness are perceived by them as a personal tragedy. Such people get a special pleasure from communication and spending time in society. They are characterized by coexistence in the team as long as they feel friendly cooperation from their colleagues.

The excessive need for affiliation often places friendly affection above production problems, not allowing matters to spoil personal relationships. A person with a strong need for affiliation often tries to avoid unpopular decisions, agrees with new and new unfair demands and exceptions to the rules to maintain and win friendship.

The need for respect.

People are not indifferent to respect and appreciation from others. However, this need is usually poorly expressed in people who assess themselves from the standpoint of internal standards, for example, in terms of moral principles or religious beliefs. On the contrary, people who are oriented toward what others think of them, have a strong need for respect. This human need is met through attention, praise, formal and informal recognition of merit and merit by other people. Often such a need can be met only if the marks of attention and recognition come from people who are important to a person, for example, a leader or a recognized specialist in any field.

Sometimes this need is seen as an ego-need. People with pronounced ego-needs are extremely sensitive to external disrespect or criticism. They deeply experience situations in which, in their opinion, they do not have the proper marks of respect, they are not recognized by the status they claim. They will seek the desired respect and status, and if the organization does not offer achievable and sanctioned ways to achieve it, they will seek unauthorized methods or become inactive and apathetic. The expressed need for respect can also find satisfaction in the pursuit of fame, acquaintance with prominent people, membership in prestigious groups or the choice of a socially oriented profession. Public speaking, playing the game, interacting with & quot; live & quot; audience - all this can act as a means of satisfying the need for respect.

The need for independence and independence.

Babies are completely dependent on adults to meet almost all their needs. As we grow older, an internal conflict arises between dependence on parents and the desire for freedom and independence.

By reaching maturity, people become largely independent and gain a great responsibility for their lives. Nevertheless, the desire for freedom and independence of people is not the same. Some organically do not tolerate any manifestations of authoritarianism and diktat and experience discomfort from the conditions, though in some way limiting their habitual behavior. In the working environment, such people prefer to carry out their tasks independently without direct supervision by the head. They do not like to depend on any resources, from someone's help. Many of them prefer to be bosses to themselves and become masters or managers of their own business. Most people represent a contradictory fusion of aspirations for dependence and freedom. However, people with a low need for independence never have the desire to "leave the nest" and go your own way. The greatest comfort they experience if they are next to them is a certain figure, personifying the parents, taking care of them and indicating what and how to do.

The need for independence largely depends on the cultural environment and family upbringing. In some cultures, for example, in many countries of Southeast Asia, a great emphasis is placed on obedience and diligence; in Western culture, the main values ​​are freedom, individualism and skepticism about authoritarian figures.

The need to achieve.

A person with a high achievement need gets satisfaction from success in performing difficult tasks, achieving perfection in something, finding the best ways to solve problems. Some people are constantly looking for tasks and situations that allow them to test their abilities and competence, while others are completely deprived of such aspirations. The need for achievement differs from the need for respect for what is focused on objective feedback on performance, on real achievements, and not how these results will be assessed by other people. It is people with a high need for achievement to work for years on any super-task or problem, while provoking only a grin of others. And even having achieved a lot, such people still strive to achieve new frontiers.

People with a high need for achievement prefer tasks whose success does not depend on a case or a successful combination of circumstances, but on their own efforts and abilities. They strive for constant and specific feedback on the results of their efforts, are not afraid of competition, seeing in it a new opportunity to test themselves. They like the work in which they can show their own initiative in solving the problem.

The need for power.

And in this need there are significant differences between people. Some get satisfaction from their influence on others, from their ability to evoke strong emotions in people - fear, admiration, anger, etc. A pronounced need for power can be met in various ways, up to enjoying watching sports martial arts or watching movies full of violence and violence. However, the most direct form of satisfying the need for power is the possibility of direct influence on the feelings, attitudes and behavior of people! Thus, power-hungry people enjoy the victory in a dispute, weakening the enemy or inflicting defeat on him, on the leadership process and the ability to dispose of people and resources. These people are very sensitive to the political processes within the organization and certainly try to gain their own power, forming alliances, trying to gain control over resources, budget or sources of information. They are constantly looking for ways to take leadership positions in organizations where they can exercise their influence. Most people have a moderate need for power. Individuals with a low need for power avoid leading positions and experience discomfort when they have to lead or influence others. Such people are not always confident in themselves or are convinced that it is incorrect to tell others what and how to do.

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