The idea of ​​law and state, On the end of everything that exists - Philosophy

The idea of ​​law and state

Kant developed a philosophical doctrine of law and the state, as well as relations between states, i.e. international law.

In his doctrine of right , Kant developed the ideas put forward by the French enlighteners. This is primarily recognition of the need to destroy all forms of personal dependence, the assertion of personal freedom and the equality of all people before the law, the elimination of all legal privileges. He deduced legal laws from the moral, and they both had a priori character, obeyed a pure practical reason.

Kant defines the state in the broad sense as the union of a multitude of people subordinate to legal laws. In each state there are three authorities, i.e. the united will in three persons: the supreme power in the person of the legislator, the executive power in the person of the ruler (ruling according to the law) and the judiciary in the person of the judge (who awards each according his own law). Legislative power can only belong to the united will of the people. Since every right must come from it, it must certainly not be able to treat someone wrongly.

In his views on relations between states Kant spoke out against the illegitimate state of these relations, domination in the international arena of the right of the strong. He saw the way out of such a state in the creation of an equal union of the parodies, whose task is to assist the states in attacking from without. The existence of such a union is the guarantee of the vitality of mankind as a whole.

An integral part of Kant's entire philosophical system is the idea of ​​eternal peace. Although he considered this idea unrealizable, believing, however, that a union of states can bring humanity closer to the realization of such an ideal. Kant's views on the problems of war and peace are permeated with the ideas of humanism.

About the end of all things

When Kant was 70 years old (this age he considered his creative flourishing), he wrote an article in the "Berlin Monthly" (June 1794), noting that reading it "sad and funny". At that time, perhaps it was & quot; and ridiculously & quot ;, and nowadays it's "not funny", but sad and should be a warning for all of humanity. This article is a sample of ironic and melancholic philosophical journalism, which in our time has a special urgency and deep moral meaning. The idea of ​​the end of all things is born in thinking not about the physical, but about the moral side of the matter. The article deals with the ultimate goal of human existence, or rather, the fate of all mankind. If this goal proves to be unattainable, then in the eyes of ordinary people, "created being loses its meaning, like a play without an outcome and a plan." According to Kant's ironic but perspicacious view, the end of all things can be of three kinds: 1) natural, corresponding to the moral goals of divine wisdom; 2) under the influence of causes, our understanding is inaccessible; 3) unnatural, which we'll call ourselves due to a misunderstanding of the ultimate goal & quot;

In conclusion, it should be emphasized that Kant had a tremendous influence on the minds of all thinking humanity: many philosophical trends, schools and teachings one way or another go back to it. His ideas, being subjected to constant comprehension and processing, continue their fruitful life. The genius of this thinker, expressed in his creations, is such a temple of the spirit, by which none of those to whom the wisdom of the wide road is passing have passed and can not pass. IV Goethe caught the "picaresque irony" in Kantian antinomies, with which Kant then convinces the reader of something, he calls to question his own positions. Goethe also said this: when you read Kant's page, you feel that you have entered a bright room.

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