Genre varieties of oral business communication
Business communication situations
The situation of business communication can be strictly official (protocol types of business communication), official (unprotected business communication in a working environment) and informal ( business communication in a non-working environment). The topics of discussion in business oral speech are set by the target setting of communication. In informal communication, the discussion of business issues is interspersed with a discussion of so-called secular topics that can not be classified as potentially conflict: culture, sport, cooking, weather. It should be noted that in accordance with the norms of etiquette (both European and Eastern), the number of very undesirable subjects includes: politics, religion, sex, health, financial problems.
Business conversation, negotiations, dispute
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The main goal of a business conversation is to reach an agreement, consistency in the subjects of business communication, and the solution of certain professional tasks. Business conversation is inherent in a conscious adjustment to the level of the interlocutor, consideration of his powers and responsibilities, life and professional experience, peculiarities of his thinking and speech.
The conversation is a purposeful, intentional kind of business communication; it is always aimed at achieving certain goals. Also, the genre of the conversation is connected with the need to make certain conclusions in the course of analyzing opinions, judgments, statements and develop appropriate solutions.
The most frequent and important recommendations for the successful conduct of business talks are as follows:
1) should write a plan of the conversation in advance, work out the most important formulations;
2) use the psychological method of periodic impact on the interlocutor, i.e. unfavorable moments and facts alternate with favorable, and start and end the conversation with positive phrases;
3) Avoid the presence of disinterested persons;
4) never, in any situation, not be rude;
5) to facilitate the respondent's answer;
6) functionally explain its position in each case, when the interlocutor does not agree with it;
7) never show disdain;
8) Avoid empty rhetoric;
9) Do not disconnect from the subject of the conversation;
10) express your thoughts convincingly and in an optimistic manner;
I) anticipate possible objections and conduct their reasoned analysis;
12) use the breakdown (first, second, third ...) when listing a number of problem-related factors.
It is necessary to note the factors that hamper the normal course of the dialogue - these are tactless snatches of the interlocutor's speech, depriving him of the opportunity to express his opinion, ignoring or ridiculing his arguments, unreasonable suspicions, manipulation of facts, unfounded statements.
Negotiations - a dialogical type of communication, focused on achieving certain results. Negotiations are held:
• for a specific reason;
• for a specific purpose;
• on certain issues (political, economic, social, cultural).
The structure of negotiations is usually presented in the form of a generalized scheme:
• Characterization of the problem and proposals for the negotiation process;
• position statement;
• maintaining a dialogue;
• problem solving;
Negotiations require careful preparation, only in this case you can count on success. For negotiations to be successful, it is necessary to try to find a common position with the partner right after they start.
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At the beginning of the talks, uncontested, non-controversial issues are touched upon, which makes it possible to create a basis for the development of negotiations. Only after this should we proceed to the main issues that require detailed discussion. And in order not to interfere with the development of negotiations, one should not focus on the divergence of views, if these discrepancies are not fundamental.
In the book of O. Ernst & quot; The word is given to you & quot; some shortcomings in the negotiation strategy are considered:
1) cold start - the partner enters into negotiations, not having considered sufficiently their necessity, purpose, complexity and possible consequences. In this case, he will only do the & quot; reciprocal move & quot ;, i.e. react, not act; the initiative will not come from him;
2) lack of program - the partner does not have a clear plan of action for achieving maximum and minimum goals. It is more reasonable to negotiate, providing different options for action;
3) main , so that it suits me! - the partner is keen on defending his own interests, that representatives of the other side do not see for themselves any advantages. Such discrepancies in interests, often caused by narrowly departmental or simply selfish considerations, block the interlocutor who has lost the desire to negotiate;
4) <> to let things go by themselves - the partner does not have specific proposals, arguments and criteria for assessing the subject of negotiations, does not state detailed requirements, does not have a clear idea of the position and possible reaction of the opposing party. The effectiveness of negotiations is reduced due to their insufficient preparation;
5) communicative snags - the negotiation goals are difficult to achieve, but the reason for the incorrect behavior of one of the participants is:
a) does not listen to the partner;
6) constantly tries to move from dialogue to monologue;
c) shows excessive emotionality, incontinence;
d) stubbornly defends his position without giving any arguments;
e) does not bring new facts, but sets forth known positions that hinder the solution of the problem;
e) is not guided by common interests, joint responsibility for the results of negotiations, does not distinguish this aspect.
During the negotiations, rhetorical questions should be avoided, which are relevant only in monologic speech, since they do not require an answer; in the dialogue, each replica requires a response.
The types of conversation are discussion and interview . Models of discussion - "round table", "brainstorming", "command business game". & quot; Round Table & quot; - a traditional business discussion, which for all its democratic content contains elements of organization, some ideals of the agreement and convention. & quot; Brainstorm & quot; unlike the & quot; round table & quot; - a kind of disorderly discussion, in which priority is given not to order and organization, but to creative ideas. & quot; Business Game & quot; - in fact the first practical approbation of the idea.
Dispute , as defined by VI Andreev, is a characteristic of the process of discussing the problem, a method for its collective investigation, in which each of the parties, arguing for their opinion and refuting the interlocutor's opinion, claims a monopolistic establishment truth. In the process of conducting a dispute, a certain contradiction appears in an explicit or latent form, which allows us to formulate the problem. In the course of a collective discussion, either the resolution of the problem occurs, or each of the opposing sides remains at its own opinion. Dispute, debate, debate - a form of dispute.
It is important for the dispute to determine its subject matter, to clarify the meanings of terms that will be the subject of a dispute, in order to avoid the "illusion of intelligibility" (that is, the discrepancy of our knowledge of the meaning of the word with its actual content, with confidence in the correctness of the understanding of this word).
The most common variants of dispute management and approaches to the discussion are as follows:
1) heuristic approach to dispute management, when one of the parties, not insisting on their approach to solving the problem, using persuasion, intuition and common sense, gradually inclines to their point of view other interlocutors;
2) the logical approach, which is characterized by hard logic analysis and reasoning, so that, following the techniques and rules of formal logic, the panelists come to some final conclusion;
3) sophical approach, in which one of the parties seeks to defeat his opponent by any, even logically wrong way, using so-called sophisms;
4) authoritarian approach, when one of the parties, relying on authority or using its authority or authority, imposes its point of view on others;
5) criticizing approach, when one of the parties fully focuses only on the shortcomings, weaknesses and positions of their opponents, the NSC wants and does not seek to see the positive elements in the opposite viewpoint and can not offer its own solution;
6) demagogic approach is that one of the parties is in dispute for the sake of truth, but in order to lead the discussion away from the truth, while pursuing their personal, often unknown to the contestants goals;
pragmatic approach consists in the fact that one or both of the parties argues not only for the sake of truth, but also for the sake of their practical, sometimes mercantile goals, which are hidden and unknown to the interlocutors;>
8) the principle of the correct conduct of the dispute : the more correct your judgments and actions, the more chances you have to win over the opponent, opponent.
For a dispute by its very essence, the benevolent top is especially important, excluding all that can be interpreted as the hidden negativism of the interlocutor. One of the indicators of latent negativism is the beginning of replicas with & quot; dissenters & quot; words: no, I do not think so , I do not agree. At the beginning of a dispute, it is not recommended to immediately contradict the opponent, sometimes you can to some extent agree with all the proposed arguments, and then say: but ..., however ..., at the same time ... and state your point of view that will emphasize your impartiality and objectivity in the discussion of the issue.
Discussion , unlike a dispute, does not lead to confrontation, does not disconnect, but connects. This is a collective activity to clarify the truth of each provision that is submitted for discussion.
Controversy expresses this kind of discussion, which is characterized by irreconcilability of the main positions of communicants.
Bidding is the conclusion of a legal transaction with individuals or organizations, firms that offered the most favorable terms.
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