The principles of building a budgetary system
The functioning of the US budget system is due to a number of principles on which it is built.The principle of unity of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation means unity of the legal framework, monetary system, forms of budget documentation, the logic of the budget process, sanctions for violations of US budget law, as well as a unified procedure for financing expenditures of budgets of all levels and accounting of budget funds. The principle of distinguishing between income and expenditure between the levels of the US budget system means the consolidation of the corresponding types of income (fully or partially) and the authority to implement expenditures for US government bodies, authorities its subjects and bodies of local self-government. The principle of independent budgets assumes: a) the right of legislative (representative) bodies of state power and local governments at each level of the US budget system to independently implement the budget process; b) the availability of own sources of revenue budgets of each level, established in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation; c) Legislative consolidation of the regulatory revenues of budgets, authority to form revenues of the respective budgets; d) the right of public authorities and local self-government bodies to independently establish the directions for spending the funds of the respective budgets, financing their deficits; e) the right to use additional income received in the process of execution of laws (decisions) on the budget; sums of excess of incomes over expenses of budgets and sums of economy on expenses of budgets.
The principle of completeness of reflecting the incomes and expenditures of the budgets of state off-budget funds indicates that all income and expenses of these budgets, as well as other mandatory receipts in accordance with the tax and budget US law and laws on state extra-budgetary funds are subject to mandatory and full disclosure in relevant budgets.
The principle of the budget balance means that the amount of the envisaged expenses should correspond to the total amount of budget revenues and revenues from sources of financing its deficit. When compiling, approving and executing the budget, the authorized bodies should proceed from the need to minimize the size of the budget deficit.
The principle of efficiency and economy of using budgetary funds suggests that when compiling and executing budgets, authorized agencies - budget recipients should proceed from the need to achieve specified results using the smallest volume of funds or achieve the best result using a budget-determined amount of funds.
The general principle ( cumulative ) covering costs involves covering all budget expenditures with a total amount of budget revenues and revenues from sources of financing its deficit, which can not be linked to certain budget expenditures, except for the revenues of targeted budget funds, and also in case of centralization of funds from budgets of other levels of the US budget system.
The principle of publicity means: a) mandatory publication of approved budgets and reports on their implementation in the open press, the completeness of the information on the course of budget execution, and the availability of information on the decision authorities; b) mandatory openness to the society and the media for reviewing and making decisions on draft budgets. (At the beginning of the 20th century, the Italian economist F. Nitti publicly called the truthfulness and publicity: "All incomes and expenses must be indicated in the budget without any useless ducks or mysterious definitions").
The principle of reliability of the budget provides for ensuring the accuracy of the forecast indicators of the socio-economic development of the corresponding territory and realistic calculation of budget revenues and expenditures, its deficit.
The principle of targetedness and target nature means that budget funds are allocated to specific recipients of budgetary funds with a designation of their funding for specific purposes. These recipients are determined in accordance with the budget classification in the Russian Federation.
Thus, the state budget, through the accumulation of financial resources, gives the government the ability to maintain the state apparatus and army, carry out social activities, and implement priority economic tasks, i.e. perform its inherent functions.
Budget Process is the aggregate of successive stages of budget formation and execution, from the moment of its development to the moment of approval of the performance report, subordinate to the goal of creating a centralized fund of funds (state or municipal budget) and effective use to ensure the functions of the state and local authorities.
The budget process is based on a special type of activity of participants, which includes the organization of procedures for drafting and reviewing draft budgets, approving them and executing them, and monitoring their execution. It is regulated by the rules of law that prescribe the rules and the procedure for its implementation.
B To the US allocates the following stages of the budget process :
- drafting budgets;
- reviewing and approving budgets;
- execution of budgets;
- preparation, consideration and approval of the budget execution report.
At each stage of the budgetary process, its participants carry out the tasks and functions assigned to them, while complying with the deadlines for budget execution specified by the legislation. In addition to the stages of the budgetary process, the USC determines the procedure for exercising state and municipal control over the execution of the budget, and also prescribes measures and procedures for liability for violation of US budget law.
The activities of state bodies from the beginning of drawing up the budget to the approval of the report on its execution last about three and a half years. This period is called the budget cycle.
The budgetary process implies a certain order and sequence of entry into the budgetary relations of various entities that are participants of these relations, according to their functional purpose, tasks and assigned budgetary authority. The system of bodies with budgetary powers includes financial bodies, monetary authorities, state (municipal) financial control agencies.
In order to exercise control, US entities create financial authorities and financial control bodies in accordance with their own legislation. Municipalities in order to serve the local budget and manage its resources create municipal treasuries and (or) other financial bodies (positions) in accordance with its charter and US law.
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