Sleep and Rest, Sunbathing, Bathing, Felting and Carding - Zoopsychology and Comparative Psychology

Sleep and rest

Sleep and rest positions are very diverse, but they remain typical for this species. For example, a dog can sleep lying on its side, back or stomach, curled up or curved in the most incredible way. These poses depend on the temperature of the environment, the physiological state and health of the dog, the depth of sleep. For a dream and rest animals choose the most different places. This may be elevations, which are part of the original observation points, or on the contrary, nooks in the thickets. Very willing to sleep and rest animals use a variety of soft surfaces. Domestic, as well as domesticated wild animals, having found themselves in a person's home, prefer to sleep on sofas and in armchairs. Many animals for sleep construct temporary or permanent nests, which can have more or less complexity. For example, dogs often dig a small groove in the ground before they lie down, or spin in place, primed grass. Chimps, with the onset of twilight, build themselves a nest for night sleep out of the branches, as a rule, every time a new one. On the vertical fork of a tree, a monkey bends down neighboring branches, breaks them, firmly holding his feet. Smaller, densely leafy branches serve to lining the bed. Sometimes chimpanzees build a canopy from the branches, protecting them from the rain.

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Very simple constructions for sleeping and rest are built by some rodents, for example an ordinary house mouse. With a few movements, rotating among the heaped building material and periodically opal nodding his forelimbs, they build around him a circular roller. House mice that live in natural conditions build globular nests using any nearby building material.

Sunbathing

Representatives of all taxonomic groups take great pleasure in sun bathing, substituting the sun for different parts of their bodies in turn. For reptiles that do not have a constant body temperature, warming in the sun is necessary to maintain the vitality. All other animals, ultraviolet and infrared rays contained in sunlight, ensure the normal course of the processes associated with metabolism.

Bathing

Swimming is considered to be bathing and swimming animals not only in different water bodies, but also in other loose substrates: sand, dust, snow, etc.

Animals of different species bathe and swim in the water. This is done for different purposes: the desire to cool or warm, cleanse your body of pollution, and sometimes just for fun. Remember, with what pleasure bathe and swim home dogs or horses.

Many land birds willingly bathe in the water, as well as in sand and dust (Figure 9.8). Sand bathing is typical for all chicken, larks, sparrows, etc. When swimming in the sand, birds perform the same movements as when swimming in the water. The bird spreads the substrate with its beak, bends, flaps its wings, shakes them, mostly in turns, and strikes itself on the sides. Obviously, such a & quot; dry & quot; Bathing helps to clean plumage from excess fat. Some birds willingly bathe in the ashes of extinguished fires, perhaps thus freeing themselves from external parasites.

Many animals take "mud baths" with great comfort. So, elephants take care of their thick skin, often bathing and lying in the mud, they also sprinkle themselves with dust or dry sand. They love to swim and splash in the water, swim well and at the same time keep their trunk above the water, like a swimmer breathing tube.

Felting and carding

Many mammals often and happily lie on the ground, grass, snow, in the dust; while they are bent by the whole body in an effort to scratch the spine, sometimes producing special sounds of various modulations. Some dogs like to scratch their back and sides about bushes, backs of sofas and even the feet of the owners.

Comfortable behavior in birds

Fig. 9.8. Comfortable behavior in birds:

and - cleaning plumage; b - bathing in the water

Mammals often have a not quite clear desire to apply a variety of smells to their bodies. So, dogs with all passion roll on the carrion, excrement of animals of other species and other & quot; fragrant & quot; subjects. S. A. Korytin describes such behavior as Tergor reaction and gives a whole series of reasons explaining it: masking the smell of a predator, transferring information to other individuals about the presence of food, etc. However, it seems to us that the reasons given by this author to explain this phenomenon are still unconvincing.

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Wolves come to a state of excitement and begin to rub the whole body about the sources of sharp perfume fragrances, for example, about the head or hands of a person who smells of shampoo or perfume. Everyone knows the addiction of domestic cats to the smell of valerian. Some cats react in a similar way to other smells, for example, the smell of dill or anise.

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