Structural structures of production processes and their characteristics
The production system of an industrial organization consists of interacting complexes of production facilities, teams of people, production, scientific and technical and information processes, connected systematically and integrally with each other, with the goal of producing final products and ensuring an efficient production process.
Under the traditional production process is understood in a certain way ordered in space and time a set of labor and natural processes aimed at manufacturing the products of the necessary destination, in a certain quantity and quality, at the set time. The production process is heterogeneous in its structure, it consists of a number of interconnected subprocesses, during which separate parts and assemblies are created, and their connection (assembly) allows obtaining the necessary product.
Typically, all production processes are subdivided according to their functional characteristics into main, auxiliary and servicing.
To main processes include processing, stamping, cutting, assembling, painting, drying, assembling (ie all operations that change the shape and size of objects of labor, their internal properties, state surface), as well as quality control of products, the progress of the production process, transport and storage operations, etc.
Auxiliary processes are intended to ensure the normal flow of the main processes. These processes are not directly related to the subject of labor, they include: the manufacture of tool tools, repairs, preparatory operations to the main production, etc.
Serving processes - is the provision of operation (maintenance) of equipment, premises of any purpose (power, heat, lighting, etc.) up to the software of information management systems.
The production process also consists of simple and complex subprocesses, depending on the nature of operations on the subject of labor. A simple manufacturing process is a consistent interconnection of production operations, resulting in a finished or partially finished product. Under the complex is understood the process of manufacturing the finished product by combining several partial products.
Depending on the amount of work required to achieve the final result of the process, full and partial production processes are identified. The complete process includes all the work required to obtain the final result of the process. A partial process is an unfinished part of the overall process. For the purpose of specialization, working complexes are formed from separate partial processes, the structure of which is determined by the composition of their elements, functions and organizational goals.
Elemental composition of working complexes includes an integrated and purposeful interaction of the objects of the pile, the means of labor and labor, i.e. purposeful movement of objects of labor through the stages of the production process, on each of which the objects of labor are exposed to the influence of means of labor and labor.
The functional composition is characterized by the functional specialization of working complexes for basic, auxiliary and servicing.
Organizational structure provides for the division of working complexes into hierarchical level of organizational elements: company, plant, workshop, site, workplace.
The process of movement of objects of labor forms a material flow, which includes: components (raw materials) purchased by the enterprise for processing and manufacturing of parts; parts that are sequentially processed at different stages of the production process; Assembly units (nodes), consisting of several parts; Kits consisting of units and parts; products - finished assembly kit or finished products.
The production cycle Pc is the period of the stay of labor items in the production process from the beginning of production to the release of the finished product within the same organization; therefore, it includes the execution cycles of technological Fri, control Pc, transport Ptr and warehouse Psk operations (time of operations), natural processes Pc and periods of breaks Pper.
The technological cycle of Ft forms the time of execution of the set of technological operations in the production cycle. Operational cycle Pop includes the execution time of either one operation on a part or a group of individual operations. This is the time for performing the basic technological operations and preparatory-final works.
The duration of the production cycle Pc depends on the methods of planning, organizing and managing production processes in time and space. It is also characterized by a structure that includes the total time for performing operations, the duration of transients, and the total time of breaks.
The time of the operation is understood as the time during which direct or indirect impact of workers and equipment on the subject of labor. It includes the time for readjustment of the equipment, technological operations (harvesting, processing, assembly, transport, storage and control-servicing operations).
Transition refers to the processes of the day after coloring, hardening, packaging, debugging, etc.
Break times include:
- breaks of the partion, arising during the processing of parts by batches due to their storage while awaiting processing of the whole lot before it is transported to the next operation;
- Waiting breaks - a consequence of the inequality of the duration of operations in adjacent workplaces; they appear as a result of inconsistency of the end time of one and the beginning of another operation performed in one workplace, for which reason parts or parts of parts are stored in anticipation of the release of the workplace;
- recesses of picking during assembly appear due to the fact that the parts forming one product or kit have different processing times and are delivered to the assembly at different times.
Whatever the industry, any organization seeks to increase the efficiency of the production process by reducing the duration of the production cycle by decreasing:
- the duration of the main and auxiliary technological operations;
- duration of transients;
The basis for effective flow management in the production and solution of all tasks of production logistics is compliance with the principles of the organization of the production process and the requirements of the logistics approach.
Management in production logistics is based on five basic principles: systemic, integrated, integrated, modular and declarative. These and additional general principles of logistics management were disclosed in Ch. 1.
But in production logistics, a number of principles of the organization of the production process are used. These are:
• specialization, which involves limiting the variety of production processes by standardizing, unifying and typifying the technological operations and product designs, etc. It can be of two types: limiting the diversity of technological functions performed by working complexes, with technological specialization, as well as limiting the variety of objects of labor being processed by working complexes-with subject or sub-specialization. The level of specialization is measured by the coefficient of consolidation of operations ( K zo), which determines the number of detailed operations performed at the workplace for a certain period of time;
• the principle of parallelism is realized by combining different production processes in time, which can reduce the duration of the production cycle;
• the principle of continuity is aimed at reducing to a possible minimum various interruptions in the production process and spatial gaps between the working complexes. This is realized either by ensuring the continuous movement of objects of labor, or by the constant loading of jobs. Achieving absolute continuity at once in two directions is an extremely complex exercise, therefore a compromise is determined in favor of a less costly way of achieving continuity. So, if a simple workplace in a non-exact production is more expensive than storing a unit of the subject of labor, then it is necessary to ensure continuous loading of work places and to provide for this the necessary level of parts of the machined parts between production stages;
• Using the proportionality principle , we propose a relative balance of the capacity of all consecutive production units that perform basic, auxiliary and servicing processes. Violation of this principle leads to the appearance of & quot; bottlenecks & quot; in the production process or to incomplete loading of workplaces, plots and shops;
• the principle of directness is achieved by the organization of the shortest and one-way through movement of objects of labor in space and time due to the location of workplaces and sections along the flow of technological process operations;
• the realization of the principle of rhythm means the uniform release of a certain number of products at specified intervals of time. This allows the fullest use of the production capacity of the workplace, site, shop and the whole enterprise. The best rhythm is achieved in mass production, which simplifies the process of its planning and management, makes it possible to rationally organize the execution of each operation;
• the principle of integrativity assumes the system integration of all processes in the organization due to the interrelated management of the functional cycles of supply, production and marketing. Integrability is achieved on the basis of the penetration of horizontal structures into each other with the advent of new properties. This happens when implementing modern information management systems of the ERP-GPS class;
• flexibility and adaptability - two principles that ensure the possibility of mobile reconfiguration of the entire production system or a part thereof for the production of other products, allow to respond promptly to changes in the conditions of the external and internal environment, to adapt optimally and effectively to modern market needs.
Following the above principles allows organizations to achieve high economic results in production activities.
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