Relationship of Accounting with Other Sciences
An enterprise is a complex structured system, and therefore accounting on it by its content is a part of many sciences in the broadest sense. Accounting requires knowledge in the field of financial and management accounting, audit, economic analysis, computer data processing systems, business economics, civil law, lending, banking, tax legislation, etc.
Accounting is one of the functions of management and therefore accounting as an integral part of enterprise management is a complex system of reflection and study of various economic processes and phenomena of economic life. The essence of processes and phenomena of the economic life of an enterprise is studied by economic theory. Therefore, the general theoretical basis for knowledge of the objects of accounting is the economic theory that studies the economic laws of production and distribution of material goods in society.
The accounting data is used in planning (budgeting), forecasting, monitoring and analysis of economic and financial activities of both individual organizations and entire sectors of the economy. It follows that accounting is closely related to such sciences as macro- and microeconomics.
The accounting data of the current period are used to monitor the performance of planned targets, and are also the basis for adjusting plans, norms and forecasts, therefore planning as a function of management is very closely related to accounting. Thus, planning is a set of goals and objectives for the further effective development of the enterprise and the choice of the most optimal option for achieving the goals set, and in this process the economic data of accounting for previous periods are used as a starting point.
Economic data of management and production are widely used in compiling various production estimates, current and future plans (budgets) of sales, production costs and production costs, etc.
In the general complex of economic sciences, with which the accounting has a direct link, includes economic analysis of economic and financial activities. It allows, using special methods and techniques, to study the entire system of making and executing management decisions, to identify the causes of negative deviations and to develop measures to mobilize the identified reserves. In the process of economic analysis, economic indicators are comprehensively used that provide the most complete and reliable description of the organization's activities. The economic analysis is carried out mainly by accounting workers - accountants-analysts, auditors, economists, experts, financial managers, marketers, etc.
Control of the company's activities can not be carried out without accounting information containing information about milestone indicators, various changes, etc. So, internal control (audit) studies mainly economic operations with the purpose of working out recommendations on effective use of resources, optimization of financial, marketing, personnel policy and achievement of qualitative results of their activity. In the process of control, deviations from plans, estimates, specifications, as well as violations of legislative acts and internal regulations are revealed.
The connection between accounting and auditing consists in the fact that audits and audits are carried out mainly according to the accounting data. Identified in the course of verification, individual results are in turn used to correct and correct accounts in assessing the risks of individual business transactions or the risks of the whole enterprise, identifying errors, shortages or surplus values, etc.
Accounting is directly related to taxes and taxation. Based on the information received in accounting, calculations are prepared for taxes and fees, which are obliged to transfer to the budget of the organization within the time limits established for it. According to the accounting data, possible tax risks and their consequences for the organization are assessed.
A close relationship exists also between accounting and financial disciplines, such as finance, financial management, money, credit, banks, exchange business. Accounting records are used in the preparation of financial budgets, business plans to monitor the implementation of financial plans, the targeted use of loans, etc. In turn, these disciplines study certain aspects of economic processes, they study the essence and patterns of certain economic phenomena.
The use of accounting indicators for statistical generalizations provides a close relationship of accounting with economic statistics.
Accounting data in organizations are used not only to control economic calculations, but also when checking the legality of the organization's functioning and the legality of the implementation of certain atypical economic transactions. It follows that accounting business is inextricably linked with such a science as jurisprudence.
Also, accounting information is widely used in the process of marketing research; work on the design of scientific organization of labor and production; implementation of economic and mathematical modeling of individual processes and economic results. On the basis of these scientific developments and design work, the organization's management can make informed management decisions at all levels and areas of economic activity of the economic entity. At the same time, the accounting feedback function provides the opportunity to further improve the ways of obtaining useful, relevant and reliable information for managing management tasks. That is why accounting is closely connected with such disciplines as management, marketing, scientific production organization, labor economics, economic and mathematical modeling and programming.
The efficiency of obtaining information, as well as its quality and efficiency of use in managing the business processes of the organization, is significantly enhanced in the context of automation of accounting. The use of computers implies the use of various techniques and methods of computer data processing systems. Therefore, the level of training of an accountant in the field of information technology should be high enough to perform work on the processing of information necessary for the organization of accounting. It follows that accounting is also connected with informatics, computerization of accounting and analytical issues and information systems in the economy.
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