Teaching methods, The concept of teaching methods - Pedagogy

Training methods

The concept of teaching methods

The question of choosing methods for conducting training sessions for each teacher is a matter of everyday, practical. In his decision, the teacher always needs to show a maximum of independence, because no "program directions" on this issue in the current legislative documents is not contained. Moreover, the freedom of the teacher is emphasized in the choice of forms and methods of teaching, because the specific learning situations are too diverse, which, according to the GEF, the DOE should take into account every teacher in their work.

What is the method and how to choose the most rational methods for a particular teacher and a particular occupation? Traditionally, the teaching method is defined as a method of interrelated and interdependent activities of the educator and trainees aimed at realizing the learning goal. Another approach defines the teaching method as a system of purposeful actions of the teacher, organizing the cognitive and practical activities of the trainees and providing the solution of the learning tasks. Both in that and in the other definition of the method there is a dual approach to its interpretation, emphasizing the unity of methods of teaching and methods of teaching, and also giving an idea of ​​the general model of teaching. However, the consideration of each method separately does not disclose the nature of the activity and the way in which the teaching and cognitive activity of students is guided, and, most importantly, the nature of the processes of mastering knowledge and developing the personality in one or another model of learning for which the method is directed. The method of telling the teacher has two sides: the teacher tells, and the student listens, comprehends, remembers. The method of conversation enables direct communication: the teacher asks questions, and the students answer.

To disclose the method more specifically, you need to consider it at the level of receptions - specific ways of organizing the activities of trainees, the student's or student's educational activities. Reception is most often defined as an integral part of the method or its specific variety. For example, the narrative method, depending on the purpose and the techniques realizing it, can be embodied in the description, narrative, explanation, proof, reasoning, elements of dramatization. The conversation can be either a playlist or a heuristic search. Each method is implemented in a unique combination of several techniques that meet the specific educational situation and depend on the level of pedagogical technology of the teacher (Figure 3.13).

If the teacher has mastered various techniques so that he can independently vary them according to

The ratio of methods and techniques in the learning model

Fig. 3.13. The ratio of methods and techniques in the learning model

from the purpose of the organized interaction with the student, the method of instruction becomes the "tool of touching the person" (A. S. Makarenko), a method of stimulating and regulating the development activity of trainees in the regular sequence of the steps of educational activity. But if each method is implemented with the help of 2-3 characteristic techniques or combinations, then for choosing an optimal method or taking the training the teacher needs to go over more than hundreds of options in the course of his practical activity.

In modern didactics, researchers have up to 50 different teaching methods: story, conversation, work on sources, demonstrations, exercises, independent work, teaching play, debate, etc. With so many methods, the number of which is multiplied according to development of the conditions for the organization of training, the process of a reasonable choice of method is extremely difficult and practically impossible. Therefore, the teacher often often uses a fairly random set of methods, spontaneously mastered within the limits of their own experience or experience of mastering become "fashionable" methods in the course of acquaintance with any new approaches, or guided by the principle of "everything little by little". The implementation of a pedagogically based choice of one's own methods requires knowledge of the possibilities and limitations of all teaching methods, an understanding of what tasks and under what conditions are successfully solved with the help of certain methods, and for which tasks they are useless or ineffective.

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