Emotions are a special class of subjective psychological conditions that reflect in the form of immediate experiences, pleasant or unpleasant sensations, the relationship of a person to the world and people, the process and results of his practical activities.
Emotions and feelings express our attitude to what we know, to our actions. Knowledge of emotions is necessary for everyone to better understand others and themselves. Without understanding yourself, it is impossible to understand another person.
Emotions form the main motive force and their influence can change the way of life, action, and communication. The inability or unwillingness to understand the emotional state of another person leads to psychological incompatibility and often becomes the cause of certain conflicts.
The role of emotional motives cannot be overestimated. The spiritual world of a person is not determined by the framework of his profession or education. His emotional demands and attitudes can be multilateral or narrow, broad, rich or poor, limited.
The emotional component performs a special function in the structure of motivation. Emotion, arising in the composition of motivation, plays an important role in determining the direction of the behavior and the ways of its implementation.
The purpose of the work is to consider emotions and feelings in human activity, as well as the functions of emotions and feelings.
Definition of emotions and feelings
When you watch the sunrise, read a book, listen to music, search for an answer to a question that has arisen, or dream about the future, then, along with different forms of cognitive activity, you show your attitude to the world around you. The book you read, the work you are doing can make you happy or upset, cause pleasure or disappointment. Joy, sadness, fear, rapture, and vexation are a variety of feelings and emotions. They are one of the manifestations of man’s reflective mental activity.
If various objects and phenomena, their various qualities and properties, all kinds of connections and dependencies are reflected in the perception, sensations, thinking and representations, then in emotions and feelings a person manifests his attitude to the content of the cognizable.
Feelings and emotions depend on the features of the objects being reflected. Between the person and the world around you, objective relationships develop, which become a subject of feelings and emotions.
In emotions and feelings, satisfaction or dissatisfaction with behavior, actions, statements, activity is also manifested.
Emotions and feelings are a kind of personal attitude of man to the surrounding reality and to himself.
Feelings and emotions do not exist, outside the cognition and activity of man. They arise in the process of activity and affect its course.
Sources of emotions and feelings are objectively existing objects and phenomena, performed activities, changes that occur in our psyche and body. At different times, the significance of the same objects is not the same. If a person is thirsty, a glass of water would bring him pleasure. If you force a person who is not thirsty to drink water, then he would experience displeasure and irritation can arise. It’s nice to listen to music, but if the concert drags on too long, then the experiences become dull and fatigue sets in.
The peculiarity of emotions and feelings is determined by the needs, motives, aspirations, intentions of a person, the peculiarities of his will and character. With the change in any of these components, the attitude towards the subject of the need changes. This is the person’s personal attitude to reality.
The world of feelings and emotions is very complex and diverse. The subtlety of its organization and the versatility of expression are often not realized by the person himself. The complexity of the mental analysis of the feelings experienced is also explained by the fact that the attitude to objects and phenomena depends on the cognitive activity or volitional activity that the personality manifests.
Everyone knows how difficult it is to tell about your feelings, express experiences in speech. The chosen words seem insufficiently bright and incorrectly reflecting different emotional states and their shades.
How to write a personal essay – the main functions of feelings and emotions
- Signaling. The signal function of the senses is expressed in the fact that experiences arise and change in connection with the occurring changes in the environment or in the human body.
- Regulating. The regulating function of feelings is expressed in the fact that persistent experiences direct our behavior, support it, force us to overcome obstacles encountered on the way or interfere with the course of activity, block it.
Regulatory mechanisms of emotions can remove excess emotional excitement or contribute to its growth. Thus, for example, longing, despair, grief deeply shock the whole being of man: they not only cause mental pain, but cause and organic changes that can acquire the character of painful disorders. To keep such a mental state is extremely dangerous, at the same time, to remove it through any purposeful activity, a person is often powerless. The turbulent shock of joy, excitement, if they were not discharged in the form of muscle movements, laughter, and exclamations are in no less degree would be dangerous for a person. Sometimes emotions that have reached extreme stress are transformed into harmless processes, such as secretion of tear fluid, reduction of mimic and respiratory muscles. Crying usually lasts no more than 15 minutes. This time is quite enough to discharge the excess voltage. After this, a person experiences some relaxation, slight deafening, which is generally perceived as a relief.
Functions of emotions
There are also several functions of emotions, let’s examine them in more detail.
The evaluation function
- Their emergence in significant situations
- Dependence on needs, etc.
The main conclusion resulting from the combined analysis of all these characteristics is that emotions are not an indirect product of motivational importance of the objects to be reflected (which are, for example, the research processes that develop in relation to them), they value this value directly and they signal about it to the subject. In other words, the system of signals by which a subject learns about the needful significance of what is happening.
Motivation function (motivating role of emotions)
- Aggression, etc.
It is known that other situational emotions, such as indignation, pride, resentment, jealousy, are also capable of imposing certain actions on a person, even when they are undesirable for him.
Disorganizing function (the ability of emotions to violate purposeful activity)
Emotions organize some activity, diverting forces and attention to it, which, naturally, can interfere with the normal course of other activities being carried out at the same time. By itself, the emotion of a disorganizing function does not bear, it all depends on the conditions in which it manifests itself. Even such a gross biological reaction as an affect, which usually disrupts the activity of a person, under certain conditions can be useful, for example, when from a serious danger he has to save himself, relying solely on physical strength and endurance. This means that the violation of activity is not a direct, but a secondary manifestation of emotions. On this basis, there can be no justification for opposing the utility and harmfulness of emotions.
These are two complementary functions performed by emotions in relation to certain mental processes, that is, they are special cases of the general regulating influence of them. It is about the influence of emotions on the accumulation and actualization of individual experience.
It points to the ability of emotions to leave traces in the experience of the individual, fixing in it those influences and successes – the failed actions that aroused them. Especially brightly, the follow-up function appears in cases of extreme emotional states.
Emotions play a significant role in the actualization of the established experience, that is, use the emotion trace left behind. Since the actualization of tracks is usually ahead of the development of events and the resulting emotions signal a possible pleasant or unpleasant outcome, they highlight the anticipating function of emotions. Since the anticipation of events significantly reduces the search for a correct way out of the situation, a heuristic function is singled out.
With regard to these two functions of emotions, it is important to emphasize that, when ascertaining a certain manifestation of emotions, they sharply pose the task of finding out exactly how emotions do this, elucidating the psychological mechanism underlying these manifestations.
For the conclusion of how to write a personal essay, you can state that the emergence of emotions and feelings is due to the social being of man. In other words, emotions are of a social nature. At the heart of feelings and emotions are, first of all, the needs that have arisen in the process of social development of man and are related to relations between people.
The word “feeling” is multi-valued. When they say “sense organs,” they mean the organ of hearing or the organ of vision. In the phrase “feeling of love” or “feeling of joy,” the word “feeling” takes on a different meaning. In terms of “sense of humor” or “sense of beauty” there is another semantic hue, which denotes a complex psychic reaction.
The importance in life and activity of a person of feelings and emotions is very great. They encourage people to work, help overcome difficulties in teaching, work, creativity, everyday life. Feelings often determine a person’s behavior, the setting of certain life goals for them.
Depending in what conditions the emotion is born, its functions will be different. Emotion can bring disorganization into the activities of the individual, will motivate his behavior or regulate his actions depending on the situation.
In complex situations, a person’s emotions can flow in the form of so-called affects, that is, very violently, and even get out of the control of consciousness if he does not have self-regulation techniques. These techniques can be worked out if a person knows and understands the nature of the onset of his state.
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