Social work is the professional activity in organizing assistance to people and groups who have fallen into difficult life situations, their psychosocial rehabilitation and integration. In the most general form, social work is a complex social phenomenon, an independent field of scientific and practical knowledge, a profession and an academic discipline.
The profession of a social worker is becoming quite common, but not all people who graduated from the college and educated can be called specialists in this field, as they receive basic knowledge, but do not always remember that this profession is connected with people, and especially with teenagers, who have a very complex inner world and there must be a special spiritual approach to it. Only knowledge (understanding) of a person will help the social teacher to make the right decision.
The theory of social work takes the problem of a holistic comprehension of man as an object of cognition outside theoretical constructions, emphasizing the justification of different models of practical activity on social protection of the needy, technologies of social support for people who have problems. However, this does not mean that the theory of social work does not take into account the requirements of a holistic vision of man, his versatile comprehension.
The most important philosophical and sociological basis of the system of humanistic psychology used in social work is precisely the requirement of the integrity of the comprehension of man as a phenomenon of social life, the subject of life-realization.
- Discovering one’s own unique experience
- Preserving continuity in the development of every human life, of all subjects of social life
- Resist lifeless schemes, ineffective, far-fetched forms of social work
The task of this social work personal statement is to study the structure of social work. After all, social work should be regarded as an independent science, which determines its place in the system of sciences. Like any science, social work has its own subject, object, and function.
Objects and subjects of social work
The term object is used in the analysis of a specific two-way connection describing a single relation of knowledge and activity. In this particular respect, the party carrying out cognition or activity is called a subject, while the side, to which knowledge or activity is directed, is called an object.
- The elderly
- Seriously ill
- People who have fallen into a difficult life situation
- Teenagers caught up in a bad company, and many others
Some objects of social work
Pensioners and disabled. The demographic situation of recent decades is characterized by a significant increase in the proportion of older people in the population structure. Demographic aging as a global trend in the development of modern civilization draws attention to the situation of the elderly in the modern world. This situation causes the formation of new needs of older people. The problems of their social protection become especially urgent in modern conditions.
Older people and people with disabilities have all socio-economic and personal rights and freedoms enshrined in the Constitution. However, changing the social status of a person in old age and a disabled person associated with the cessation or restriction of labor and social activity, experiencing difficulties in social and psychological adaptation to new conditions, generates serious social problems. The most acute problem is the restriction of the vital activity of the elderly and disabled people.
In the solution of this problem, the improvement of the system of social rehabilitation and social assistance for the elderly and disabled is of paramount importance.
A component of social protection of the elderly and disabled at the present stage is the provision of social assistance. Social assistance is the provision in cash and natural form, in the form of services or benefits, provided with social security guarantees established by the state.
An important condition for the social rehabilitation of disabled people and the elderly in the modern period of transition to market relations is the maintenance of the standard of living by increasing the size of pensions. One of the effective measures for the social rehabilitation of the elderly and disabled is their employment.
The family is the main object of social work. In the family, to a large extent, all healthy prerequisites originate and germinate. Who and how will live and work in the future –depends on what is the social well-being of the modern family, how it raises children and what qualities they are taught. Therefore, the family is at the center of attention of the social worker and constitutes one of the most important spheres of its activity.
- Families of single mothers
- Military service with children
- Families with children with disabilities
- Large families
- Families with young children under the age of three
- Student families
- Families of unemployed, etc.
Over the past three years, there has been an increase in families of all categories in need of material support. The growth of low-income families among large and incomplete families is especially noticeable. The causes of the crisis situation of families can be economic and social.
- Economic causes – job loss, non-payment of wages and benefits, low wages – are the most characteristic.
- Social causes are alcoholism, parasitism, illegal behavior of one or both spouses.
As a rule, this is accompanied by a low cultural level, lack of spirituality, irresponsibility before children. A child growing up in such a family is often unbalanced and psychologically depressed. Very often children from such families are difficult children. Young offenders are recruited from among them.
The state seeks to provide possible assistance in the maintenance and upbringing of children. However, centralized funds are not enough, and they are not always used rationally. The social work personal statement indicates that the activities of local authorities are very important, and they are looking at domestic resources to help families.
Family conflicts and domestic violence, emotional discord, drunkenness and many other problems – all these are concerns of social work.
The task of social work with the family is to teach the families of self-help and mutual assistance.
Subjects of social work
- The main subject of social work is the state with its executive bodies both on local and regional level.
- Executive authorities are the main subject of social protection of the population. In the system of public administration, a special place is occupied by the problems of local authorities, local self-regulation bodies. The main task of local authorities is to conduct constant, planned, organizing activities to create the conditions for the vital activity of the population, to realize its intellectual and creative potential and to ensure the social protection of those who need it.
- A specialist in social work. The global need for social workers arose at the end of the last century in connection with the manifestations of acute social problems. After two world wars, unprecedented economic and social crises, this need has become even more urgent and conscious. The post of a social worker was introduced in 1991. In the qualification handbook, such a person is endowed with a variety of job duties: he identifies in the neighborhoods families and individuals who need social, medical, legal, psychological, pedagogical, material and other assistance, protection of moral, physical and mental health; establishes the reasons for their difficulties, conflict situations, incl. at the place of work, study; assists them in their resolution and social protection; promotes the integration of the activities of various state and public organizations and institutions to provide the necessary socio-economic assistance to the population; conducts psychological, pedagogical, and legal advice on family and marriage issues, educational work with underage children with associative behavior; identifies and assists children and adults in need of custody and guardianship, receiving material, social and other assistance and much more. If the family used to take care of children and the elderly in full, the now changed model cannot fulfill these functions.
- Public and charitable organizations
The main functions of social work
The field of activity of a specialist in social work is extensive. This work is multilevel, heterogeneous. By virtue of this, it is multifunctional.
- Diagnostic – the study of the personality of the client, the family, a group of people, the degree and direction of the influence of microenvironment, the setting of a social diagnosis.
- Prognostic – programming, forecasting, designing the process of social development of a specific individual, family, microsocium, the activities of various institutions involved in the social formation of the individual.
- Preventive and socio-therapeutic – activation of social, legal, psychological, and other mechanisms for preventing and overcoming negative phenomena, rendering necessary assistance to those in need, ensuring the protection of the rights of the family, women, adolescents, children, youth, pensioners, disabled people, etc. in the society.
- Organizational-communicative – promoting the inclusion of the public, specialists from various departments, institutions and organizations in the social service, involving them in providing various types of assistance to a particular person family, a group of people, collecting information and establishing interaction between various social institutions in their work with clients.
- Security-protective – the use of the entire arsenal of legal norms to protect the rights and interests of the client, to assist in the application of state coercion measures, and to realize legal responsibility in respect of persons who allow unlawful effects on the client.
- Social and medical – organization of work on family planning, formation of public attitude to reproductive and sexual behavior, assistance in training youth for family life, mastering the basics of first aid, nutrition culture, sanitary and hygienic rules, life safety rules.
- Social and pedagogical – the identification of the interests and needs of families, individuals and their groups in various activities, involving various institutions, organizations, socio-creative unions, specialists, coaches, organizers of cultural and leisure activities.
- Organizational – the organization of a particular activity, the influence on the content of leisure, assistance in employment, vocational guidance and adaptation, the coordination of activities of various kinds of associations and clubs, work on the interaction of the client, the family, a group of people with medical, educational, cultural, sports, legal institutions, societies and charities.
- Social-household – assistance in getting material and other assistance to needy clients and families, improving their living conditions.
- Psychological – ensuring the permissible and appropriate intervention in the affairs of the client, the family, in the process of socialization, rendering assistance to traditional institutions of education, ensuring communication between the client, the family and the microenvironment, the individual and society, the role of the client’s trusted person, the family.
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