Accounting of the capital of the organization, Accounting...

Capital account of the organization

As a result of studying this chapter, the student must:

know

• the essence, goals and objectives of accounting for the organization's own capital;

• The regulatory framework for the accounting of capital of an organization;

• regulatory requirements for the size of the statutory and reserve capital;

• the main tax aspects of accounting for the organization's own capital;

be able to

• make entries to standard accounting transactions for the movement of the organization's own capital;

• use the regulatory legal acts governing the accounting of the movement of the organization's own capital;

• answer test questions and solve situational problems and accounting cases;

own

• the skills and skills of documenting and information support of an economic entity on the state of the movement of the organization's capital;

• the skills and skills of using relevant information for the purposes of managing the firm.

Accounting for Authorized Capital

Authorized capital - one of the main indicators that characterize the size and financial condition of the organization. It is reflected in the amount registered in the constituent documents as a set of contributions (shares, shares at nominal value, shares) of the founders (participants) of the organization. An exception are investment funds, in which the authorized capital in accounting and reporting is shown as it is paid and in actual amounts for a certain date.

Authorized capital is the starting capital of the organization, necessary to ensure its core business and profit in the future.

Depending on the type and form of ownership of the organization, this seed capital may be a reserve capital in a general partnership and partnership on faith; share fund in production cooperatives; statutory fund in unitary state and municipal enterprises; authorized capital in JSCs, LLCs and companies with additional responsibility.

The authorized capital of the LLC must be at least 100 times the minimum wage (SMIC). In JSC the authorized capital must be at least 1000 minimum monthly wages.

The contribution to the charter capital of a commercial organization can be money, securities, other things or property rights or other rights that have a monetary value. The monetary valuation of the deposit is made by agreement between the founders of the commercial organization and, in cases provided for by law, is subject to an independent expert review (paragraph 6 of Article 66 of the Civil Code).

The value of the contribution of each founder is determined by the collection of founders.

When establishing a company, 50% of the authorized capital must be paid by the time of registration, and the remaining 50% - within one year.

The increase in the authorized capital is allowed only after it is fully paid and is not allowed to cover losses.

The preferred shares should not exceed 25% of the authorized capital.

Accounting of the share capital is conducted on account 80 "Authorized capital". According to economic content, this is the account of sources of own economic means, in terms of structure and purpose - basic, passive, stock. In the credit of the account, the balance of the funds on the account and their receipt are reflected, the debit is the disposal, write-off of funds. The balance on the account can be only credit, which reflects the amount of the authorized capital of the organization.

After the state registration of the organization, its authorized capital in the amount of contributions of the founders (participants) stipulated by the constituent documents, reflects on the credit of the account 80 "Share Capital" and the debit of account 75 "Calculations with founders".

Deposits of participants in the authorized capital can be carried out in cash and in kind.

Not only money, but also any other property can be contributed to the company's authorized capital. Reflection of this operation in the accounting and tax accounting has a number of features.

You can contribute to the authorized capital of fixed assets, goods, materials, securities, etc. To this end, the participants of the company must agree on their cost and unanimously approve it at the general meeting of the founders.

In some cases, the value of a property deposit must be determined by an independent appraiser, for example, if a firm contributes more than 50,000 rubles to the authorized capital of an LLC.

Contribution to the charter capital of another organization is the financial investment of the firm. It is recorded at the contractual cost in account 58 "Financial investments". In this case, the posting is made:

D 58/1 & "Shares and shares";

To 01 Fixed Assets & quot ;, 10 Materials & quot ;, 41 Goods and others - the property contribution to the authorized capital of the organization is reflected

Contributions to the charter capital, including in the form of property, are not taken into account when calculating the profit tax (clause 3, Article 270 of the Tax Code).

In addition, the difference between the value of the acquired shares (shares) and the accounting value of the transferred property is not recognized as the profit (loss) of the firm.

And in accounting, the difference between the accounting and appraised value of the property refers to the income or expenses of the firm from participating in the authorized capitals of other enterprises. They are included in the operating theater. In the accounting records are made:

D 58/1 & "Shares and shares";

To 91/1 Other Income - reflected the excess of the contractual value of the property over its accounting value;

D 91/2 Other costs & quot ;;

To 58/1 & "Shares and shares"; - reflected the excess of the book value of the transferred property over its contract value.

Since the difference between the agreed and recorded value of the property is not taken into account when calculating the profit tax, this leads to a permanent difference. To account for this, you need to open a special subaccount to account 91 "Other incomes and expenses."

The difference between the contractual and accounting value of the contributed property is not taken into account when calculating the profit tax (subsection 2 of clause 1 of Article 277 of the Tax Code).

Because of the constant difference, the firm's accounting profit will not coincide with the tax one. In this case, the enterprise has a permanent tax obligation (if the contract value is less than the accounting one) or a permanent tax asset (if the contract value is more). These figures are reflected in account 99 "Profit and Loss" and are recorded in the following posting:

D 99 Profits & Losses & quot ;;

To 68, "Calculations with the budget for taxes and fees" - a permanent tax liability is reflected;

D 68 "Calculations with the budget for taxes and fees";

To 99 Profits & Losses - a permanent tax asset is reflected.

In accordance with Art. 28 of the Federal Law of December 26, 1995 No. 208-FZ "On Joint Stock Companies" the authorized capital of the JSC may be increased by increasing the nominal value of shares (conversion) or placing additional shares, but only after the previously announced authorized capital and all registered issues of shares and other securities have been fully paid.

In accounting, the increase in the share capital is reflected in the following entries:

Debit 83 Additional capital & quot ;;

Credit 80 Registered capital - part of the additional capital funds is aimed at increasing the authorized capital;

Debit 84 & Retained earnings & quot ;;

Credit 80 Registered capital - Undistributed (net) profit of the organization is aimed at increasing the authorized capital.

According to Art. 29 of the Federal Law on Joint Stock Companies the authorized capital of a company can be reduced by reducing the nominal value of shares or reducing their total number, including by acquiring a portion of shares.

Decrease in the authorized capital by decreasing the nominal value of shares is reflected in the entry:

Debit 80 Registered Capital & quot ;;

Credit 75 Settlement with founders .

Reducing the size of the authorized capital may also occur as a result of the reorganization of the JSC (its separation, separation from it of another society).

In addition, in accordance with paragraph 4 of Art. 35 of the Law, if at the end of the second financial year or each subsequent fiscal year the company's net assets value is less than its authorized capital, the board of directors (supervisory board) of the company, when preparing for the annual general meeting of shareholders, must include in the annual report of the company a section on the status of its net assets .

The minimum amount of the charter capital of a company after its reduction can not be lower:

- the amount of the authorized capital determined by the current legislation as of the date of registration of changes in the company's charter - if the charter capital is reduced at the request of the company;

- the amount of the authorized capital determined by the current legislation as of the date of registration of the company itself - if the charter capital is reduced to the value of net assets.

In the accounting record:

Debit 80 Registered Capital & quot ;;

Credit 84 "Retained earnings (uncovered loss)".

Decrease of the authorized capital to the value of net assets of JSCs is made solely by decreasing the nominal value of shares, and not by repaying previously acquired shares.

If the net asset value of an AO is less than the statutory minimum authorized capital, the company must decide on its liquidation.

The joint-stock company may buy out its own shares from shareholders with a view to their further resale or cancellation.

A summary of information on the availability and movement of treasury shares bought out by the company from shareholders is carried out on account 81 "Own Shares". At the same time, the following entries are made in the accounting records:

D 81 Own Shares (Stakes) & quot ;;

To 51 Settlement accounts - own shares purchased from shareholders have been taken into account;

D 80 Registered capital & quot ;;

To 81 Own Shares (Stakes) - reflected a decrease in the company's charter capital through the cancellation of treasury shares;

D 91/2 Other costs & quot ;;

To 81 Own Shares (Stakes) - a negative difference between the nominal value of the repurchased shares and the actual costs of their redemption has been written off.

In the event of the repurchase of own shares for the purpose of further resale, the transactions will be reflected as follows:

D 81 Own Shares (Stakes) & quot ;;

To 51 Settlement accounts - own shares purchased from shareholders have been taken into account;

D 51 Settlement accounts & quot ;;

To 91/1 Other Income - shares redeemed from shareholders are sold;

D 91/9 "Balance of other income and expenses";

To 99 Profits & Losses - financial result (profit) from sale of own shares redeemed from shareholders is determined.

When forming the authorized capital by making the founders of foreign cash in the account, positive (negative) exchange differences are formed. The exchange difference related to settlements with founders for contributions to the authorized capital shall be credited to additional capital. In accounting, these transactions will be reflected in the following transactions:

D 75/1 "Calculations with founders on contributions to the authorized capital";

To 80 Registered capital - the debt of the founder to the company for payment of shares is reflected;

D 52 Currency Accounts & quot ;;

To 75/1 "Calculations with founders on contributions to the authorized capital"; - reflects the contribution by the founder of foreign cash to the organization's currency account;

D 75/1 "Calculations with founders on contributions to the authorized capital";

To 83 Additional capital - reflects a positive exchange rate difference associated with the formation of the authorized capital of the organization;

D 83 & Add-on capital ";

To 75/1 "Calculations with founders on contributions to the authorized capital"; - reflects the negative exchange rate difference associated with the formation of the authorized capital of the organization.

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