Classification and characteristics of accounts
In order to study and correctly apply accounting accounts, it is advisable to consider their classification but certain characteristics for establishing common and specific properties of different groups of accounts. Within the framework of the methodological formulation of accounting, the most representative characteristics of classification are the following:
Accounting object (property or sources):
- active accounts (accounts for accounting of organization's property);
- passive accounts (accounts for accounting of the organization's property sources);
- active-passive accounts (accounts for accounting calculations, processes and results);
The degree of detail of the information obtained:
- accounts of the first level (synthetic accounts);
- accounts of the second and the following levels (analytical accounts). The ratio of accounts to the balance sheet:
- balance sheets (are included in the balance sheet and reflect property and sources belonging to the organization as property);
- off-balance sheet accounts (recorded for balance and reflecting property and sources that do not belong to the organization, but are in temporary use, disposal and (or) operational management.) They do not have a double entry, and they have a three-digit code.)
accounts of various types of property;
- accounts of various types of property sources;
- accounts of economic processes and facts of economic life. Purpose and structure of accounts:
- basic (inventory, stock, cash and settlement accounts);
- regulatory (contrarian, additional, counter-additional accounts);
- operational (distribution, costing, matching accounts).
Classification of accounts by purpose and structure complements the economic classification and is designed to obtain information on the formation and use of the organization's assets and sources of its formation. Despite the presence of some coincidences, the classification of accounting accounts by purpose and structure, in contrast to economic classification, unites the accounts into separate groups not by the economic homogeneity of the objects considered, but by their place in the process of capital circulation and expanded reproduction (Figure 5.1).
The first group of G/L accounts contains accounts that take into account the property of the organization and sources of education, including borrowed capital, through which systematic monitoring of the financial security of financial and economic activities, as well as the state of payments for the rights and obligations of the organization. Priority of the contents of the accounts of this group in relation to other groups predetermined its name. All accounts of this group in the presence of the balance are presented in the balance sheet. This applies primarily to property accounts that are active with respect to the balance sheet: 01 Assets, 04 Assets Intangible Assets, 10 Materials, 50 Cashier Accounts, 51 Current Accounts and others
Fig. 5.1. Classification of accounts by purpose and structure
Passive accounts are usually included in the balance sheet passcode: 80 "Charter capital", 82 "Reserve capital", 83 "Additional capital", 66 "Short-term loans and borrowings", 70 Settlements with staff for other transactions etc. The balances on active-passive accounts are known to be displayed in expanded form: debit in the asset, and credit balances in the liabilities of the balance: 60 "Settlements with suppliers and contractors", 62 "Settlements with buyers and customers" and others
Accounts specifying the valuation of individual types of property, due to the specificity of the objects considered in the current accounting and in the balance sheet are presented in the structural classification in the second group as "Regulatory Accounts". They do not have independent value, as they specify and (or) correct the valuation of certain types of property and its sources. These accounts are used in the account in parallel with the main account. Within this subgroup, three contract accounts are allocated: 02 "Depreciation of fixed assets", 05 "Amortization of intangible assets", 42 "Trade mark-up". Each of them specifies the assessment of the corresponding accounting object.
Additional accounts in relation to the balance sheet are active and their purpose is to supplement (increase) the initial valuation of the accounted asset: account 15 "Procurement and acquisition of tangible assets"; 40 "Release of products (works, services)". Each of them complements the initial assessment of the main account.
The difference between the actual costs accrued in the process of preparing and acquiring production inventories and their value at fixed discount prices (contractual, weighted averages, the cost of the first incoming lot - FIFO, etc.) is debited to the debit or credit account 16 "Deviation in value material values ", which is a counter-supplementary account.
Third Group Operating Accounts include accounts that affect the formation of individual business processes or directly disclose their content. They, in turn, are divided into: distribution, costing and collating accounts.
Distribution accounts perform, first of all, the control function in the formation of individual expenses and the observance of the estimates established thereon, and also are used for the purpose of a justified distribution between certain types of products (works, services) for a full calculation of their actual cost price. The system of distribution accounts includes two subgroups:
- collectively-distributive - active accounts reflecting expenses that can not be attributed to specific calculating objects (types of products (works, services) directly at the time of realizing the facts of economic life, since they are general in nature and, as a rule, during the reporting period (month, quarter) are collected on the same accounts, and then distributed among the calculating objects and written off by including them in the cost of a specific type of products (works, services) indirectly). The structure of this sub-group includes accounts: 25 "General production expenses", 26 "General economic expenses", 44 "Expenses for sale", 84 "Shortages and losses from damage to valuables" and others;
- the control and distribution accounts provide control over the validity of the distribution of costs and revenues between the reporting periods. They include: 97 "Future expenses" (active account), 98 "Deferred revenue" (passive account), 96 "Reserves for future expenses" (passive account).
Calculation accounts are intended for calculating the cost of goods produced, works performed or services rendered in the reporting period. Accounts of this subgroup in relation to the balance are active. These include accounts: 08, "Investments in non-current assets", 20 "Basic production", 23 "Subsidiary proceedings", 28 "Marriage in manufacture", 29 "Servicing manufactures" and others
Comparison accounts are designed to calculate the financial result of individual business processes and the organization as a whole. They are subdivided:
- on the operational-result accounts are provided for the generalization of information on incomes and expenditures of certain processes and facts of the economic life of the organization, as well as determining the financial result for each of them. The list of operating-result accounts includes accounts: 90 "Sales" and 91 Other Income & Expenses & quot ;. In relation to the balance, the account data is active-passive. They close at the end of each reporting period, do not have balances and are not reflected in the balance sheet;
- the financial-result accounts are represented by the account 99 "Profit and Loss", which is active-passive and combines a wide range of facts of the economic life of the organization that affect its financial results:
- from ordinary activities;
- other income and expenses.
A separate group consists of off-balance accounts, which include accounts that are not part of the organization's balance sheet. They reflect assets that do not belong to the organization, but are in its economic management or management. This group is represented by three subgroups of accounts:
- the disclosure of the individual types of assets that are temporarily in use by the organization (accounts - 001, "Leased Fixed Assets", 002 "Commodities Committed to Responsible Snoring," 004 "Commissioned Goods", ; Equipment taken for installation and others);
- characterizing the conditional rights and obligations of the organization (accounts: 008, "Securing liabilities and payments received", 009 "Securing Liabilities and Payments Issued");
- designed for the purpose of monitoring individual transactions (account 007 & "Diluted debt of insolvent debtors").
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