Budgeting And Budgeting Constraints Accounting Essay

A budget is a quantitative or monetary plan for a time frame that aids the effective and successful management of resources, by motivating the effective planning, controlling, organising and managing of resources. A budget is thought as 'a quantified assertion, for a defined time frame, which may include planned income expenses, assets, liabilities and cash flows'(Davies & Boczko, p733:2005).

Budgeting Constraints

The use of budgets in the operations of Langdale limited or any other business is very imperative to the management of its businesses, since it forces managers to think ahead in areas of tool allocation and activity control. However, some freelance writers and companies have criticised the use of the original system due to the following factors

Inability to cope with rapid change

Unrealistic/ Inaccuracy

Main give attention to financial information

Time consuming

Reliance on earlier trends

Inability to deal with rapid change

The traditional system of budgeting has been criticised by companies such as Volvo and Ericsson for its inability to improve quickly with the changing highly powerful and competitive environment. This often makes budgets irrelevant to make use of even prior to the start of budgeting period especially in economies of hyper-inflation. Desire and Fraser (1999) state that Volvo made a decision to stop using finances following a huge loss it created from 1990 to 1992, and low income in 1993. The management chose that the lack of budgets would allow the business to react immediately or in advance to the changing business environment. This diverted management time and costs regarding finances, to strategy factors that helped build the business's competitive border over its rivals. Four years after Volvo ceased using budgets it advanced into an action oriented business. Therefore the absence of costs encourages the utilization of management time and resources to improve a businesses' performance.


The use of budgets is criticised for being unrealistic and incredibly unreliable, especially where it concerns large or possible projects. Schlesinger (2004) undertook a study in regard to the amount of simple fact portrayed by the 2012 UK London Olympics budget that was made 8 years in advance. He called for the ideas of Finance Directors from various companies', the outcome was that about three-quarters of the FDs contemplated that the 8 years budget was unrealistic. A renowned fund director, Paresh Samat suggests that companies are to learn from the budget that was drawn up for the rebuilding of the Wembley stadium, whereby estimated costs were approximately 30%-40% higher. It is therefore highly recommended not to make decisions exclusively based on a budget.

Main focus is on the financial information

The traditional budgeting system is criticised to be financially focused. This curb's a lot of companies' capacity to operate effectively and efficiently. Nelly eta(2003) state that one of the world's greatest polyolefin plastic manufacturers Borealis A/S discontinued using finances in 1995 and has since used the beyond budgeting concepts (non-financial factors). These non-financial factors include things like brand image, work force quality, customer satisfaction and innovation etc. Critics highly recommend the use/ incorporation of non-financial and financial budgets a basis for decision making, planning and controlling of an companies' operations. This is because they perceive the original budgeting system as encouraging accounting frauds, whereas beyond budgeting guidelines encourage transparency and good commercial governance.

Time consuming

The traditional budgeting system is criticised when planning on taking up a lot of management, set alongside the values it contributes to the success of aims (cost-benefit). It's estimated that management spends roughly 20% of its time on the budgeting process. This will encourage blame culture and budgeting game titles e. g. budget slack. Factors like these would cause business failure.

Reliance on previous data

The traditional budgeting system manages by using an incremental basis, where by future forecasts are dependent on previous data e. g. past inputs and outputs. That is mainly criticised for its inability to improve effectively and effectively in accordance to the changing business environment. Furthermore it discourages innovation and tends to build a corporate and business culture that is resistant to improve. Collectively this ends in businesses underperforming therefore of failure to advance with the changing world.


It is important to note that despite the traditional budgeting system is generally criticised, it is still paramount to the attainment of business goals.

Incremental Budgeting Alternatives

Langdale ltd's main problems with incremental budgeting are the following

Time consuming

Regarded as a filling exercise

Does not provide any assistance that boosts the business's operations

These problems from the incremental budget can be resolved by the use of each one of the following budgeting alternatives

Zero Based Budgeting

Activity Established Budgeting

Zero Founded Budgeting

Zero structured budgeting is whereby budget arrangements begin from a zero basic (no resources and costs) and is set up based on justified costs.

The budget is established on a basis that costs are considered so long as they have a subsistence result and contribution in a company's businesses. This then makes management to evaluate and innovate new ways in which to attain the highest production levels from the utmost utilisation of resources, by identifying inefficient businesses.

The compilation of the budget wouldn't normally be regarded as a filling process by both management and employees, unlike the incremental budget. This is because zero based mostly budgeting induces the involvement and contribution of every employee. Consequently it provides employees with high morale and career development opportunities.

The use of zero based budgeting is criticised for being costly and time consuming. The price justification process is identified to be subjective. Hence the budget would be biased and would lead to business performance being adversely infected. Additional by its aspect of ongoing change zero established budgeting installs low employee morale and job insecurity in employees. This might make the operations of your business very inefficient.

Collectively the use of the zero founded budgeting system is most reliable when put on operational areas that most reap the benefits of it e. g. discretionary procedures- research and development or advertising. The ongoing changing nature of zero centered budgeting systems will encourage a small business culture which recognizes problems and derives solutions for them. As a result this facilitates a high level of business performance.

Activity Established Budgeting

The concept that activity structured budgeting is made on is comparable to that of activity based mostly costing. The budget is end result focused whereas activity based costing is activity (cost-driver) oriented.

The use of activity centered budgeting induces responsibility accounting. The manufacturing company (Langdale ltd) would advantage tremendously from the utilization of the budget, since the budgets strategy is to recognize relevant and irrelevant costs when making decisions. This promotes management and employees to regulate costs by taking corrective action before or when necessary to. This cost distinction improves the operating efficiency of the business enterprise.

Activity structured budgeting is criticised for its arbitrary strategy and allocation of costs. It is because it generally over simplifies costs and overlooks the effect external factors e. g. inflation, beyond the control opportunity that management is wearing business operations. Additional, the actual fact that activity based budgeting targets activities that drive costs makes it less productive and effective. The costs emphasis on cost control is performed at the expense of non-financial value adding factors such as product quality and client satisfaction.

The use of activity established budgeting increases the procedures and efficiency of an business, if cost management is paramount to the operations of the business.

The company could increase its value by 3% to about 1, 700 per batch. The business's sales earnings would increase to 2, 550, 000 and therefore its net cash flow would increase to 176, 277 from the previous 101, 244. In turn it would generate the company 26, 277 more than the targeted world wide web cash flow of 150, 000.

The increase in the value could raise the company's net cash flow, as factors like the merchandise demand remain the same. However this is highly unlikely in line with the price elasticity of demand. An over-all increase in a products price is followed by a corresponding reduction in its demand, since customers can swap to substitutes or competition brands who offer a lower price for the merchandise. Under such circumstances the reduced demand would reduce both the company's sales income and net cashflow.

Acquiring of a short-term loan

The company could get a short-term loan e. g. standard bank short term-loan or bank overdraft, which would meet some or most of its functional costs. This would supply the company with a significant amount of free cashflow which would subsequently result in a rise in its world wide web cashflow position.

A lender short-term loan has several drawbacks that could outweigh its benefits. In such a report the primary concentrate is on its insufficient versatility the most predominant factor of most drawbacks. The interest charges that are paid on the lender loan are normally on a fixed rate basis, subject to the nominal value of the loan. Furthermore loans include officially binding conditions if when breached the lender can call-up for the immediate full repayment of the loan.

The use of your bank or investment company overdraft as a way to obtain finance also offers its own downsides with the major one being the high interest charges, with overdrafts ranging from 1, 000-4, 999 incurring an gross annual interest +ranging from 11. 9%-15. 9%. Furthermore the bank can call-up for the full payment of the overdraft at any time. Therefore uncertainty concerning when the lender will require a repayment is a serious problem, it could require repayment when the company is in its most vulnerable liquidity position. Because of this net cash moves would be adversely influenced.

Negotiation of payment terms

The company could make a deal its conditions of payment for direct materials using its supplier(s) by agreeing to stay them on the credit basis somewhat than cash. This might probably supply the company more time and opportunities to generate greater online cash moves.

Paying for products on credit could bring about the company burning off benefits provided by the company e. g. cash and trade savings. This would result in the company incurring high development costs because of the loss of economies of level and consequently a it would earn a low net cashflow.

Issue of shares

Assuming that Landel ltd is a limited company, it could issue stocks either by means of a rights concern and/ the selling of its unissued stocks. The rights issue can be produced on reduced and would supply the company with a lot more cash set alongside the issuing of stocks at their nominal value. The cash received from either or both varieties of issuing shares would enhance the company's net cashflow.

Issue of shares may possibly also limit and probably reduce its world wide web cashflow since it would need to pay dividends on those stocks. Additionally the share issue could expose the business to dominate.


It is strongly suggested that the company analyses the huge benefits and costs aspect of any financing source(s) before implementation. This would ensure that it could take up the financing alternative(s) that are most beneficial to the business's liquidity position.

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