Architecture of the 20th Century

While discussing the main topic of structures of the 20th century, the talk is incomplete with out a special mention of Robert Venturi. The person started out his life in Philadelphia on 25th June, 1925 he continued to become one of the most prevalent brands in American structures. The info on Venturi carries a special mention of his partner Denise Scott Dark brown. 1960 was the year they first meet, received committed in 1967 they will always be together since. This husband and wife team did amazing work in the region of architecture, launching themselves with the joint venture better recognized as Venturi, Scott Dark brown & Associates (VSBA). "Architecture steeped in popular symbolism. Kitsch experienced become art work in designs which exaggerate or stylize cultural icons. " [1]

Some of the most important design strategies followed by Dark brown were 'theory is not the guideline of thumb', 'learn to copy', 'drawing-a must have', 'ideation is constant' etc.

According to Robert and Denise, theory is not the rule of thumb. Some architects glued to theory as it pertains to planning designs, Robert Venturi and Denise Scotte Dark brown thought the opposite way. Matching to them design process should not be dominated by the theory. This was even though both of them were well known theoreticians. Venturi even went on to state that "the musician is not someone who designs to be able to prove his or her theory and definitely not to match an ideology"[2]

While the majority of the architects implemented the school of thought of not copying, Venturi and Dark brown experienced a different point of view here too. They thought that they could learn more by duplicating the works of the experts. As Venturi appropriately puts forth, "It is best to be good than to be original. " [3] But, this by no means meant a total imitation. To the, Denise Scott Brown helps it be clear that they duplicate ideology that they replicate ideologies. The duo only got copying to the level of drawing ideas. Their ideas was a bottom to build up further designs. Venturi says, "You have to have something basic that you either build on or develop from or revolt against. You 'must' have something there in the first place and the only way to get it is to duplicate, in a common sense of the term. "[3]

One, of course, needs to have certain skills to leave a mark the field of structures. Corresponding to Robert and Denise, sketching was the most essential one. Discussing the skill as a center between hand and mind, Denise Scott Brown also said that it was essential for designers to master drawing to be able to succeed. She believed which it often happened that the side draws something, that your mind interprets in a different way and you draw a complete new idea from it.

In a time where everyone thought that handwriting has a little significance as everything can be carried out using specially designed software, the duo has its quarrels ready. "People who can draw very well and who control line weight well at hand technique are the ones who use the computer imaginatively, "[4] they asserted.

Who says that you need to sit in a plank room to ideate? Well, not Venturi at least. In his view ideation can't be bound by place or time; he thought that one could ideate anytime and anywhere, even while discussing. Venturi alleged "that even while talking one suddenly sees another thing from the corner of these eye and they think of something they wouldn't have done often. He also opined that you ideate more while working on other assignments and averred the theory only comes after great have difficulty and agony. "[5]

Some of the top complexes built by the duo are - The Vanna Venturi House, Chestnut Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 1962, Brant House in Greenwich, Connecticut in 1973, Gordon Wu Hall in Princeton, New Jersey in 1983, Bank building in Celebration in Florida in 1994 and many more.

Since mid 1960s Robert and Denise greatly changed the landscaping of the North american Architectural thought their operations and practices with their design strategies. Robert Venturi's book 'Intricacy and Contradiction in Structures became a uniting point for budding architects around the globe who had become cynical with the stylistic restrictions of the International Style therefore of which the reserve provided a manifesto for the Post-Modern motion in architecture. Accompanied by this out of his teachings at Yale emerged his 1972 booklet Learning from NEVADA that was co-authored by Steven Izenour and Denise Scott Dark brown. The architectural world was once again astonished by this work. The the gaudy and the sign-filled Vegas strip was transformed from as an architectural aberration to a vernacular art form which deserve serious analysis. Venturi sensed that the Decorated Shed and different other styles of roadside properties offered design lessons that cannot be left went to, an" he argued that architects require to face the truth and symbolize the popularly built environment with properties corresponding compared to that environment. "[6]

"Kitsch is mirrored as a form of art work that is substandard and is also a tasteless copy associated with an a complementary design of art or is a nugatory look-alike of art work of acknowledged value. "[7] The deliberate use of elements which may be considered as cultural icons is what this idea is related to

"Kitsch may also be defined as the genres of art that visually lack if being theatrical, sentimental, glamorous, or creative and that make creative gestures which simply represent the superficial looks of art by means of repeated conventions and formulae. This term is often associated with abnormal sentimentality. " [8]

The introduction of postmodernism in the 1980s, blurred the borders between kitsch and high art yet again. The acceptance of what's called camp preference - which might be related to, but is not the same as camp when used as a gay sensibility was one development.

An unreal or an assumed illustration from the world of painting would be a kitsch image of a deer by a lake. In making camp, panting an indicator beside it, declaring No Swimming. The majestic or affectionate perception of an stately canine would be punctured by laughter; the conception of any animal receiving a a penalty for the breach of the guideline has gone out rightly ludicrous. The primordial, reflective sentimentality of the motif is neutralized, and therefore, it becomes camp.

A few things that posed as interesting difficulties were the conceptual skill and deconstruction, because, discussing of kitsch, in favour of elements that enter in it by relating to other spheres of life they downplayed the formal structure of the artwork.

Inspite of this truth, many in the artwork world continue to latch onto some sense of the dichotomy between art work and kitsch, excluding all sentimental and realistic fine art from being considered seriously. It has come under the scanner of the critics, who now dispute for a restored art work and figurative painting, without the concern for it appearing innovative or new.

Whatever will be the scenario, there may be difficulty in defining boundaries between kitsch and fine art since the start of postmodernism, the word kitsch is commonly used to label anything seen as being in poor preference still.

This postmodern architecture influenced by Venturi was further prejudiced by many architects like Philip Johnson and Robert A. M Stern.

When discussing American architecture, there is absolutely no way you can miss out on Philip Johnson. Probably one of the most notable and renowned American architects, he was the champion of the first 'Pritzker Architecture Award'. For creating the Department of Architecture and Design at the Museum of Modern Art work, NY is credited to him.

Philip was created in 1906 in Cleveland. He enjoyed a vital role in creating and understanding the urban skyscrapers through America. Johnson was an advocate of simple style and thus he played a substantial role in strengthening the minimalist development. The work of varied modern architects, including Mies van der Rohe, Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier was comprehensively reinforced by Johnson. He was a co-author of the popular publication, 'The International Style'. The techniques of the Bauhaus were presented to America by this booklet.

By the time Johnson reached the age of mid-thirties he was discontented along with his role associated with an writer and curator. So he analyzed under the architect Marcel Breuer at The Graduate University of Design. Johnson designed his own house in New Canaan, Connecticut immediately after his graduation. His first architectural work, his house is known as one of is own most remarkable works. The house was a glass house and included an exposed metal frame. Johnson continued with his architectural quest and went on to design numerous public complexes and residences after his own house. Johnson designed a few of his well-known works, notably the Seagram Building in NEW YORK during this time.

Johnson had a far more inspired than individualistic stint with structures initially. His original work carried a strong bear symbol of Mies van der Rohe. However, an individualistic touch could be seen in his work by 1960's. Infused with historical elements, his design of structures showcased how you can aesthetically include domes and colonnades in a building. He created some of his most monumental works of his life only after he uncovered his individualistic architectural sense. A few of these include the Sheldon MEMORIAL at the School of Nebraska, the New York Condition Pavilion at the World's Rational and the New York State Theatre in New York City. With the 1970s and 1980s, he started out tinkering with the texture and color of the surface of his creations at large though he was still trapped along with his original design of architecture.

Today in his nineties, Johnson is recognized as one of the last modern architects that we have. With a run of practically 70 years in neuro-scientific structures, he has surely carved his market and will continue to encourage many architects in the times to come.

Another popular name in American architecture is of Robert Arthur Morton Stern, also known as Robert A. M. Stern. He's an American architect and presently the Dean of Yale School School of Structures. His work is usually described as postmodern. However, a dominating emphasis on continuity of tradition in his work is observed which can't be ruled out. No wonder, he recently used the phrase 'modern traditionalist' to spell it out his work.

As a designer in the office of Richard Meier he started his career in 1966. But he soon stop from his job and proven his own organization, 'Stern and Hagmann' in 1969. He developed the firm

with a fellow learner at the Yale University named John S. Hagmann. This was followed by the establishment of the successor organization, 'Robert A. M. Stern Architects', a name still extremely popular in American architecture.

He has a broad stock portfolio to his credit when discussing his work. Some of his more well known projects in the general public domain name include Lakewood People Library in Lakewood, Ohio, the key collection in Columbus, Federal government Reserve Lender in Atlanta and many more. Stern was also a well known author apart from being truly a successful architect. He has authored NY 1880, NY 1960, and NY 2000- a string that documents the evolution and record of the architecture of New York City.

This postmodern structures has his roots deep before, as is noticeable from his work. His structures showcase a profound affection for days gone by. His perhaps most obviously project while using Walt Disney Company reiterates the same. He dished up the business in the position of Panel of Director for the tenure 1992-2003.

His boardwalk at Disney World is suggestive of any American seaside community from the first 20th century. You will be reminded of how architecture has improved from Victorian to the Vienna Secessionist activity while you have a look at his buildings. The mini town beautified with artifacts from various eras, though nearly historical, results in as a aspiration like walk. And not to forget the Beach team, that displays the 19th century American Resort structures in its true form.

With an enormous pool of work and a design philosophy that combined the best of modernism and custom, Stern is certainly not a name to be ignored in the architectural world.

Though his wide-ranging horizon of work is a feat in itself, he has other achievements to his credit as well. A Driehaus Award laureate, he continued to succeed several awards. In the year 1984, he was granted with the AIA New York Chapter's Medal of Honor. He was also conferred the Chapter's President's Honor in 2001. He also offers to his credit the Scully Award from the Country wide Building Museum, Athena Honor from the Congress for the New Urbanism and the Panel of Directors' Honor from the Institute of Classical Structures and Classical America.

"Since long and nonetheless Philip's designs in PoMo mode reveal a good to the level of kitsch that looks lest camp in its drive than and unmitigately cheap in its effect" [9]. Within the aesthetic program of Robert Venturi kitsch and the region of day-to-day culture was used. But at the same time in his imaginative designs, he generally enhanced them. In the circle of architects "Robert Venturi an Robert A M Stern, the so called Greys Designers whose work used the hybrid culture idioms of American day to day life as starting points of their new imaginative course including kitsch and pop. " [10] Thus Robert Venturi, Philip and Robert A M Stern are three flamboyant modern architects whose contribution to architecture have a made a difference to the architectural world.

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