Many modern performers use high technology equipment in their works. Whereas usually artists used a pencil or brush to make beautiful artwork, artists in the first twenty-first century are now using sound, training video or computer generated images. Digital art work developed from simple habits and patterns made using computer programs to finished artwork which can look as reasonable as a watercolour or engine oil painting. Modern fine art exhibitions often include more videos and installations than traditional painting or drawings. Even artists which use traditional techniques progressively more use modern tools including the internet to show their works and talk to other artists. Modern tools provides a opportinity for artists to create works faster with an increase of tools than previously. I will be talking about the impact of a few of these technologies in relation to the fine art of some modern artists. I will dispute that modern technology such as the computer and training video is another tool for an designer to use in their work. I'll especially concentrate on the video recording artwork of Tracey Moffat and the computer artwork of Lillian Schwartz as but two types of designers today who use modern techniques. Moffat is an Australian contemporary musician who uses film extensively as an art-form, and many of her works are based on and reflect the modern technology of Hollywood movies and television. Schwartz can be an artist who has a long history of using computer technology to test means of creating and manipulating works of art. She has also written extensively about the topic of computer affect in fine art, and about art produced by computers.
Modern technology is having an enormous effect on recent art work. Modern artists are employing new materials and ways to produce their artworks. Whereas before painting and pulling were the main mediums employed by artists in their work, now in the 21st hundred years installations, sound, training video and computers are becoming more widely used and popular. Musicians and artists today are continuously experimenting with new technology in different ways, finding new ways to work with old mediums and finding new mediums as well. In modern art work displays like the various Biennales performed round the world, video plays a prominent role, as well as installation art and progressively, digital art work. There are even exhibitions that solely focus on digital artwork, such as Ars Electronica held yearly in Linz, Austria. The internet is now used more numerous contemporary artists using it to show their works with online galleries, speak to other designers and sell their works. Web sites such as deviantart. com or yessy. com offer painters an possibility to sell and screen their works and talk to people throughout the world. Computer programs such as Photoshop and Painter allow music artists to easily manipulate photos and color pictures using custom designers tools which can create the consequences in a minute of what previously would have considered months to coloring. Many musicians and artists today are involved in using digital art work technology to produce websites, computer games or online art work exhibitions. The conceptart. org website is one example of a site which mostly exhibits digital artwork, that has over 100, 000 content by many different people. Digital art work is ever more being shown in contemporary artwork exhibitions as well to be online, more popular towards the end of the 20th hundred years. "Digital fine art made its public entry in to the skill world only in the past due 1990s, when museums and galleries started out increasingly to incorporate the talent to their shows and dedicate entire exhibitions to it. " (Paul 2003: 23) The impact these technologies is having on contemporary art may also be hard to pin down at one time being that they are moving so fast they are constantly changing and being up to date. However, while modern tools provides artists numerous opportunities and ways to create art work, it still functions much like any other musicians and artists tool of days gone by. Videos are being produced for free galleries equally as paintings were made for exhibiting by the impressionists, like the films made by Tracey Moffat.
Tracey Moffat is encouraged by images that can come from tv set and movies to make her own films. These films show that she is not only using new technology to display artwork, but her ideas for the movies are based on the technology itself. In another of her recent motion pictures, Musician, Moffat shows a collection of clips from films and tv set programs which show how Hollywood and modern-day society depicts artists. By exhibiting popular tv set shows slant on what the idea of an artist means to society, this demonstrates the view of the ordinary person, who will often misunderstand contemporary fine art. This film shows the sometimes uninformed, sometimes funny view of contemporary society towards performers today. She shows a clip from the Agony and the Ecstasy with Michelangelo destroying his first painting in the Sistine Chapel, a comic world from the movie Batman with Rembrandts and Degas paintings being vandalised by the 'Joker' and a world from the television set show Absolutely Wonderful, as well as other scenes from art films such as Surviving Picasso. This ingenious 10 tiny documentary gives an excellent insight in the manner artists are identified in modern society, how "five generations of mainstream multimedia have perceived the creative process and designers themselves" (http://www. wmm. com/Catalog/_makers/fm253. htm), especially considering that the word musician now more often than not in popular usage such as on tv and on the air, identifies a musician rather than visual artist, numerous people today sometimes confused with a postmodernist design of visual fine art where anything is allowed and considered art. In another of her short videos, Lip, Moffat shows clips put together of dark-colored servants in Hollywood films talking back to their 'bosses', in what she actually is trying showing is the discrimination which is often obvious in motion pictures towards minorities, and "reveals the narrow margin Hollywood has allowed dark actresses to sparkle in" (http://www. wmm. com/Catalog/_makers/fm253. htm) While you're watching the motion pictures the racism in the movie may be refined, however when she appropriates many images from different videos and places them collectively it is much more evident.
In a lot of her movies and images Tracey Moffat has used a method which is near an appropriation similar compared to that done by other postmodern musicians and artists. In the group of photos called GUAPA (Good Looking) (Fig. 4) she shows images of people from different races roller-skating in a rink as though it were a competition with a referee, the image borrowed from similar tv set images. She uses a soft magenta color effect in the images, which contrasts with the action which is taking place. The individuals in the film are dressed in unusual outfits, gives the feeling possibly of the futuristic sport. In another of Moffat's movies, Heaven (Fig. 2), she shows video footage of men getting altered in a car area near a beach, and she will take the positioning with the camera of someone enjoying who possibly is not likely to, or whom the people in the film are unpleasant with having there. She actually is someone watching the surfers who is not supposed to, "shamelessly takes on voyeur to a succession of surfers changing to their wetsuits in auto parking a lot" (http://www. renaissancesociety. org/ show/moffat/index. html) Once more, Moffat is giving an answer to the programs shown on tv set and in the movies, and by making fine art upon this theme it implies that television and films are influencing the skill which is being displayed in modern-day free galleries. This film makes skill out of any seemingly normal activity, includes photographs of a car as seen from the inside and outside the house, as well as surfers putting on standard clothes and jewellery. She appropriates these icons of modern life like the autos and modern clothing and uses them within an artistic way to express the voyeur theme which she is looking to get across. In her film, Bedevil (Fig. 3) which comprises three separate movies, Moffat appropriates images from modern life including the American soldier in the first tale 'Mister Chuck', the railway tracks in the next 'Choo Choo Choo Choo' and the landlord and eviction in the third 'Lovin' the Spin I'm in'. The images from these motion pictures have been partially inspired by memory from her early life.
Tracey Moffat uses for creativity in a lot of her films the movies and television set programs she remembers from her youth. Modern technology in this way is having a direct effect on the art produced by music artists such as Moffat, who bases her ideas straight upon ideas via these exact things. In her videos, she uses imagery which comes from popular culture, from tv set programs and movies that she has seen including from sources that are not often seen as area of the artwork world, such as B-grade tv programs and television set advertisements. She "employs the stylistic resources of advertising and even so-called 'trash-TV'" (Reinhardt 1999: 7) She was raised in Brisbane in the 1960s, and during this time period experienced much of popular culture through different types of modern culture on the new technical tools of television and movie theater, "from melodramas to deeply surreal film noir" (Sever 2001: 12) She also uses modern music in her videos such much like cuts displaying Jimmie Little singing in the film Nights Cries (Fig. 1). This film shows a female caring for her dying mom, as well as showing many years prior to the woman as a young child at the beach with her mom who is much younger then. Moffat has used the film to set-up an effect similar compared to that of Frederick McCubbin's The Pioneer which ultimately shows a dying person on one side and the same person much younger on the other. Thus giving the audience a feeling of sadness as they think about all the incidents which the person experienced in their life time. The audience would start to see the way the girl would feel destined to look after her mother in the same way that her mother cared for her when she was a kid. Moffat also has considered using computers in manipulating photographic images, because the number of things she can do is greatly increased with many computing tools available for the designer.
Photography is often a wonderful problem. . . Naturally now with computer manipulations the options make you worn out even great deal of thought.
(Tracey Moffat, quoted in Hentschel 1998: 23)
American artist Lillian Schwartz made many experiments with computer artwork during her long career. Personal computers are being utilized by recent musicians and artists as tools with which to analyse and create artwork. Schwartz was main artists to experiment with computer images and computer effects on artwork. She worked closely with scientists in the 1970s in the first periods of computer development, and developed one of the first rock and roll music videos. She also made one of the first digitised films to be shown as a masterpiece of design, her video Pixillation exhibiting diagonal red squares and other designs such as cones, pyramids on dark on white backgrounds. This video tutorial is regarded as one of the most important early on works of computer film artwork which with her other work is "now considered seminal works of computer skill. . . composed of programmed abstract images. " (Rush 1999: 172) She functioned in the first levels of her job with researchers as Bell Laboratories developing mixtures of audio, video and fine art. Later on, through the 1980s, Schwartz made many tests with artworks manipulating images using computer technology and creating some artworks of her own.
Schwartz thoroughly used the works of Leonardo Da Vinci in tests with computers. These experiments exhibited some of the ways in which computers may be used to change and develop images. These images develop the audiences belief of artworks which they already know. She used a 3D computer generated model to show that the lines on the Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan match the perspective lines of Leonardo's fresco painting of the past Supper, exhibiting that his painting may have been designed to seem as an expansion to the room from where in fact the monks could have been sitting to see it. Thus technology has given a new sizing to the painting by allowing audiences to better realize why it possibly had been made. Likewise, in Schwartz's most well-known work, the Mona Leo (Fig. 5), she spliced the kept aspect of the Mona Lisa (Fig. 6) with a flipped still left side of the red chalk family portrait of Leonardo (Fig. 7), arguing that the Mona Lisa is a self-portrait by Leonardo. She demonstrates the Leonardo personal portrait and the Mona Lisa fall into line correctly, as when the two images noses were aligned all of those other face prearranged exactly. Using lines drawn on the image, she shows the bottom of the attention, eyebrow, nose and chin all line up mutually. She also eliminates the grey tones in the Leonardo self family portrait and superimposes the Mona Lisa eyesight over it in further tests to show the way the images are strongly related. Without aid from your personal computer, these tests would have a much longer timeframe, for occasion if she was to color the Mona Leo yourself. Her new works each work as separate works of art in themselves with all the current characteristics of your work of art, therefore the computer is a tool which creates fine art equally a paintbrush does indeed. This can be considered an art of appropriation, as where an designer has lent the images of another artist to make a new work.
Schwartz uses computer systems to manipulate a great many other images which relate with art and art history, creating new artwork. Schwartz's tests with computers to control images were done decades before digital art work became popular in the late 1990s. She used forms generated by way of a computer to make images on the computer display screen, such as using trapezium designs to set-up an thing recognisable as a pet cat (Fig. 8), as well as triangle figures to represent a human brain. (Fig. 9) She also experimented with ways to superimpose multiple images onto another recognisable image within an effect of a collage, much like Statue of Liberty (Fig. 10) and Homage to Van Gogh (Fig. 11) Personal computers applied in such ways can create collages and images faster than possible by hand. These images function not only as tests with computer work, but also as works of art in themselves. Statue of Liberty is composed of different elements which were put together by using a computer, very much like Cubist collages and Dadaist photomontages of the first 20th century. She warped images of faces of Rembrandt into a image of Einstein, demonstrating similarities in the cosmetic features (Fig. 12), a task which would be extremely difficult to do by hand, but only take a few seconds using a pc. She similarly merged images of artwork in a poster for the Museum of Modern Art work in New York in her poster Big MoMA (Fig. 13), an also near impossible job yourself, but not too difficult with computers, but still creating a legitimate award winning masterpiece of design.
The role of computer systems to be used by the artist has been dealt with by Schwartz. Personal computers can today perform many functions for the musician, from creating artworks through changing photography or by flipping figures, changing colorings, adding tones and a relatively infinite amount of other uses. Computer painters can create interactive images, automatic robot installations, digitalised and/or 3 dimensional images. Lots of the ways which this latest technology is used to produce art makes skill into a genre becoming near being a video game or a movie. In her research on personal computers, Schwartz discusses whether art work produced wholly by computer systems can be considered as fine art, the question is asked as to what a masterpiece of design means, "Could it be the final artwork (or result) by which creativeness is judged, or is imagination in addition to the art work. " (Schwartz 1992: 256) She asks whether this means that something must be produced artistically, or are people impressed with the craftsmanship and effort that has truly gone into a work like a Michelangelo or Titian when they think of computer as art. For if it is only the craftsmanship which makes a masterpiece of design then computers can surely produce artworks since they have the ability to work faster than humans in many ways. Paint and brushes can be regarded as technology of sorts because they're implements which are made for the designer to use in his painting, just like a painting computer program will there be for an artist to produce his works on. The Renaissance painters had assistants to mix paints, prepare canvases, or regarding Rubens even finish off the painting. The computer can be thought to be assistant which allows the artist higher time to put into creative ideas, and less into repeated tasks which can certainly handled by the computer.
The computer is very much like an apprentice. . . Because the grasp (the programmer or artist) does not have to be there for many of these operations, it seems as if the computer is operating in place of the artist. We've again found our scientist-artist, which is the computer itself.
(Schwartz 1992: 233)
Video and computer systems are having a huge influence on modern fine art. Modern artwork exhibitions are progressively incorporating the utilization of both video recording and computers, as well as other technologies. Furthermore, music artists such as Moffat are employing ideas from new media such as television and Hollywood videos that are being shown in art galleries. Schwartz uses pcs to control images and create new artwork. Art is carrying on to change with the advantages of new systems. Artists are effectively using these solutions in their works, and will almost certainly continue to do so in the foreseeable future. Moffat's use of film and Schwartz's use of computer systems implies that these new media can and are often used in art work, and are just as valid a medium as a paintbrush or pencil.
Reference List - Books
Cooke, Lynne and Kelly, Karen 1998, Tracey Moffat: Free-Falling. Dia Centre for the Arts, New York, USA
Duckrey, Timothy 1999, Ars Electronica: Facing the Future. A Review of 2 DECADES, Massachusetts institute of Technology, USA
Goodman, Cynthia 1987, Digital Visions. Computers and Artwork. Harry N. Abrams inc. web publishers, New York, USA
Hentschel, Martin 1998, Tracey Moffat, Wurttembergischer Kunstverein, Stuttgart, Germany
Hertz, Richard and Klein, Norman 1990, Twentieth Century Art Theory. Urbanism, Politics and Mass Culture, Prentice-Hall Inc. , NJ, USA.
Lucie-Smith, Edward 1995, Movements in fine art since 1945. Issues and ideas, Thames and Hudson, London, UK
Paul, Christiane 2003, Digital Fine art, Thames & Hudson, London, UK
Popper, Frank 1997, Art work of the Electronic Age, Thames & Hudson, London, UK
Reinhardt, Brigitte 1999, Tracey Moffatt. Laudanum, Hatje Cantz Publishers, Ostfildern, Germany
Rush, Michael 1999, New Mass media in Past due 20th Century Art. Thames & Hudson, London, UK
Schwartz, Lillian F. 1992, The Computer Artist's Handbook. Ideas, Techniques and Applications. WW Norton & Co. Inc, NY, USA
Sever, Nancy 2001, Tracey Moffat. Invocations, ANU Drill Hall Gallery, Australia
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