15.6. Electrical connection and operation
The installation and operation of electrical networks and electrical equipment used in construction sites, in buildings and temporary buildings and structures under construction are carried out by persons responsible for the safe condition of electric networks and electrical equipment, which are required:
o monitor the correct selection, use, installation and installation of power grids, engines, luminaires and other electrical equipment, depending on the class of fire and explosion hazard zones according to the Rules for the installation of electrical installations and environmental conditions;
o systematically monitor the electrical equipment in order to prevent the occurrence of emergency operation modes (short circuit, overload, large transient resistance and other emergency conditions) in accordance with the passport and other data on them;
o carry out planned and preventive inspections of electrical networks and electrical equipment, check the availability and serviceability of protection devices and immediately take the necessary measures to eliminate the shortcomings;
o not allow anyone who does not have the appropriate qualifications and admission to install, repair and maintain electric grids and electrical equipment.
All electrical systems and electrical equipment must be equipped with fault-free protection devices from emergency operation modes (short circuit, overvoltage, overload). The characteristics of the protection apparatus must correspond to the operating modes of electrical networks and electrical equipment. As zero protective (grounding) conductors, only specially designed conductors should be used. The earthing mains must be connected to the earthing switches in at least two different locations and, if possible, from opposite sides. It is not allowed to use the pipelines of water supply, sewerage, heating systems and similar systems as grounding.
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Portable luminaires should only be used in the presence of serviceable protective glass hoods and metal nets. For these lamps and other portable (mobile) electrical equipment, flexible cables with copper conductors must be used in rubber insulation resistant to the environment. Connection of portable luminaires should be provided from junction boxes with plug sockets. Electrical equipment manufactured by non-specialized organizations and also without a passport, operating instructions, and stamps indicating the degree of protection of the shell are not allowed to operate in fire-hazardous and explosive areas.
Installation, repair and replacement of electrical equipment in explosion-proof and closed version must be carried out only with the voltage removed. The input of cables and wires into explosion-proof electrical equipment must be carried out with seals provided for by its design and periodically checked for leaks. In warehouses with fire hazardous areas, the use of devices with detachable contact connections is prohibited. The distance from the luminaires to combustible materials should be at least 0.5 m, and from luminaires to the building structures of fire hazard classes K2-KZ - not less than 0.2 m. In temporary buildings and structures, open luminaires are not allowed. Distribution switchboards and control gear should be periodically inspected and cleaned of combustible dust or deposits. The frequency of cleaning should be established in the instructions on fire safety measures. Access to electrical boards, electric motors and other electrical equipment must be free. Faulty electrical systems and electrical equipment must be immediately disconnected until faults are eliminated and brought to a fire-safe condition.
The connection and branching of conductors of wires and cables should be carried out by means of crimping, welding, soldering or special clamps. Periodically (according to technological regulations and regulatory requirements), a specialized organization should measure the insulation resistance of wires and cables. Lighting projectors on the territory of the construction site are not allowed to be installed on roofs made of materials of flammability groups GZ-G4 and enclosing structures of fire hazard classes K2-KZ. It is not allowed to lay electrical wires and cables (except for those laid in steel pipes) directly on metal panels using heat-insulating materials of flammability groups GZ-G4, and also install electrical panels and similar electrical equipment closer than 1 m from these structures.
Laying of electrical networks through enclosing structures must be carried out in metal sleeves with sealing of non-combustible materials.
The cables for hanging wires, cables or their bundles to them with air laying must be securely fixed.
When operating electrical installations is not allowed:
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o use cables and wires with damaged or defective insulation properties;
o use non-factory heating appliances for heating, drying and cooking
o leave unattended electrical equipment, including household electrical appliances, as well as exposed ends of electrical wires and cables;
o allow electrical wires to come in contact with metal structures and utilities
o lay overhead transmission lines and external electrical wiring over roofs, canopies, timber stacks, warehouses for storing combustible materials;
o Transit the installation of electrical wires and cables through storage facilities in which flammable materials are stored;
o use stationary fixtures as hand-held portable lamps;
o use damaged (faulty) sockets, switches, junction boxes, switches and other electrical products;
o tie and twist electrical wires and cables;
o Suspend fixtures directly on electrical wires;
o paste and stain electrical wires and cables;
o use electrical installation products (sockets, switches and other types of products) for hanging clothes and other items;
o wrap the electric lamps with paper, cloth and other combustible materials;
o use as an electrical protection non-calibrated fuses, fuses not corresponding to the rated current, and also not industrial (not factory),
o lay electrical wires and cables inside the enclosing structures of fire hazard classes K2-KZ, under the finishing materials of the flammability groups GZ-G4 without additional protection according to the Rules for the installation of electrical installations;
o to replace or disconnect the protection devices provided by the manufacturer or design documentation (circuit breakers, grounding conductors, fuses and other protection means) of electrical equipment with other types of protection that do not comply with this equipment;
o connect electrical equipment in excess of the calculated power grid parameters;
o operate open distribution switchboards and ballasts;
o store combustible materials in electric boards.
At the end of the works, all electrical networks, electrical equipment and other electrical consumers of construction sites, including temporary buildings and structures (except for residential buildings and structures operated by the watch method of construction and projectors used to illuminate the construction site after hours) must be de-energized . The power outage must be centralized.
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