Extinguishing fires, Elimination of accidents in engineering...

Fire Fighting

Extinguishing of fires in the process of engineering and rescue work begins with fire extinguishing in obstructions, cellars, preserved and partially destroyed buildings. The greatest effect for extinguishing fires in obstructions is provided by a watering-washing machine with a tank capacity of 8,000 liters and pumps with a feed of 960-1200 liters per minute, delivering streams of water for 20-25 meters. Sprayed water jets are used to extinguish fire on open wooden structures, in blockages, for extinguishing fibrous materials, alcohol, acetone, as well as for cooling metal structures.

Fires in enclosed basements and buried rooms are also eliminated by isolating the room from the air environment, for which the apertures are tightly closed with bags of sand, metal sheets with subsequent sanding, etc.

It is forbidden to use water to extinguish burning alkaline metals of sodium, potassium, magnesium, as well as materials stored together with calcium carbide and quicklime. It is forbidden to extinguish burning electrical installations under current, tanks with gasoline, kerosene, oil and other combustible liquids. To extinguish them, foam, carbon dioxide and special fire extinguishers are used.

Elimination of accidents in engineering networks and their short-term recovery

Disaster recovery work on utility networks should be carried out using the communication plans of facilities on which all networks are indicated, the direction of movement from pumping stations of water, gas, steam, binding of wells, wells, spare water tanks of water tanks from explosion- and fire hazardous products, etc.

In case of emergency works on water supply networks, the inputs into the damaged or destroyed buildings and structures are cut off or the damaged sections of the network are blocked. For this purpose, they find necessary wells and chambers, clear rubble over them and find places of water leaks. Information on the results of the search is communicated to the head of the group to resolve the issue of disabling the network section, taking into account possible fire-fighting operations during this period. Water from the flooded cellars is pumped out after disconnection of damaged areas by means of mobile self-priming centrifugal pumps, motor pumps or suspended and hinged pumps. Emergency work on damaged networks includes sealing of water leakage points, repair of pipe joints, replacement of damaged sections of pipes and fittings.

Emergency works on sewerage networks are mainly carried out by diversion to specially designated places of sewage flowing to the surface of the earth and bypassing them to avoid the threat of flooding of structures located below the destroyed section of the sewerage network. To disable the destroyed area, it is necessary to close the pipe in the inspection well facing this section, stoppers, plugs from bags filled with sand, shields, etc.

On the heat supply networks, emergency work is carried out to prevent people from falling into steam and hot water. For this purpose, the inspection wells and chambers are opened and the corresponding latches and shutters are closed at the entrance to the buildings if the heat supply system is damaged there. The sections with the destroyed steam pipeline should be protected by warning signs.

On gas supply networks, the places of destruction are detected by the smell of gas or by special devices. The site of the damaged gas network is cordoned off by special posts. In such places it is prohibited to use open fire, rescuers should use oxygen-insulating devices instead of usual gas masks. When the gas ignites, first of all, the supply pipeline is closed, then the flame is thrown with sand (ground) or covered with a wet tarpaulin, which is covered with earth and watered.

In case of emergency work on power networks, the distribution network or some parts of the power supply network are disconnected, the switch cut off and fuses are removed, and sometimes the wires are cut. The high-voltage network is automatically disconnected in case of damage and is earthed during repair. Work on the electricity grid is performed only by electricians.

After de-energizing, first of all, the least damaged parts of the network and power supplies are restored and measures are taken to provide power to units engaged in saving people from under the rubble and in the area where accidents are eliminated and their consequences. First of all, consumers are provided with energy, on the basis of which successful restoration work depends (for example, transport enterprises, water supply stations, pumping stations for industrial and fecal sewage, radiotelephone units, etc.), measures are taken to provide electricity to industrial facilities where the shutdown of the technological process can cause an accident or cause great material damage.

Electric power to the consumer is supplied by the remaining power lines or by temporary cable lines from the nearest transformer substations.

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