Like any other activity, labor activity is fraught with dangers, including for life and health of a person engaged in a simple labor process, his work capacity and the opportunity to find work. To eliminate or reduce hazards at work, favorable working conditions should be created and its reliable safety ensured. working conditions means a combination of the factors of the labor process and the working environment that affect the employee's working capacity and health (Article 209 of the LC RF). The main characteristics of the labor process are the severity and tension of labor.
The severity of labor - one of the main factors of the labor process, reflecting the load is mainly on the locomotor system and the functional systems of the body (cardiovascular, respiratory, etc.) which ensure its activities. The severity of labor is determined by a number of indicators, labor factors for dynamic and static work:
- the amount of lifted and moved cargo manually;
- the number of stereotyped repetitive motions;
- the nature of the working posture;
- the number of deep slopes of the body;
- the value of the static load.
Labor intensity is one of the main factors of the labor process, reflecting the burden mainly on the central nervous system, the sense organs, the emotional sphere of the employee. Factors determining the intensity of labor include intellectual, sensory, emotional loads, the degree of their monotony, the mode of operation.
Under the factors of the production environment , in which human activities are carried out, understand the most diverse conditions of this environment: from physical to socio-psychological. All hazards associated with occupational safety are classified as "dangerous and harmful production factors of the physical, chemical, biological and psychophysiological type" (see § 5.1).
Safety - the state of working conditions, in which the impact of hazardous and harmful production factors on workers is excluded. Security Status is a state where there is no danger of an accident that could cause harm. The degree of security can change over time, because the degree of risk can vary depending on the objective circumstances and actions of people. Due to this, it is necessary to periodically check the degree of safety by visual or instrumental control. After an appropriate check, preventive and protective measures are developed, the implementation of which improves the conditions and safety of work.
Safe working conditions are working conditions in which exposure to working harmful and (or) hazardous production factors is excluded or their exposure levels do not exceed the established standards (Article 209 of the Labor Code of the United States). Safe working conditions are the most important element of the organization of labor and production, a prerequisite for its effectiveness. A direct indicator of safe working conditions has not yet been invented, however, as an indirect indicator of safe working conditions, workers' health and high-performance work without injury and occupational diseases act. In practice, indicators characterizing the hazard of work are used: the number of injuries, their frequency and severity. Obligations to ensure safe working conditions in accordance with Art. 212 TC of the United States are vested in the employer. Trade unions and other representative bodies of workers exercise public control over the provision of safe working conditions.
As is known, in certain circumstances the impact of working conditions on a working person can lead to adverse events, such as fatigue, fatigue (illness).
Fatigue is the physiological state of the body that results from excessively intense or prolonged activity and manifests itself in a temporary decline in the functional capabilities of the human body. Distinguish between physical, mental and emotional fatigue.
Insufficient resting time or excessive workload for a long time often leads to chronic fatigue, or fatigue . Distinguish between mental and mental (mental) overwork. In young people and persons with a certain nervous system, intensive mental work can lead to the development of neuroses that arise more often when a combination of mental fatigue with a constant mental stress, a greater sense of responsibility, physical exhaustion, etc. Mental fatigue is observed in persons who are overly burdened with "mental" unrest and various kinds of duties.
Fatigue is a subjective experience, a feeling that usually reflects fatigue, although sometimes it can occur without real fatigue.
The causal relationship of disease with working conditions is very complex and ambiguous. The complex of factors in the production environment, which forms the working conditions, the severity and intensity of the labor process, exert on the workers both a specific (ie, directly and clearly directed ) and a nonspecific ( general unfavorable ) impact.
More often occurring nonspecific effects reduces the overall protective functions of the body, which leads to the development of common diseases. Since these diseases are provoked by working conditions, they are often called production-related diseases. In practice, separating them from common diseases is difficult (and sometimes impossible).
The less common specific impact is associated with specific production factors and leads to the development of certain diseases caused by these factors. Since such diseases are caused by unfavorable working conditions of specific jobs of specific occupations, they are called occupational diseases which can be both acute and chronic.
Acute occupational disease is a disease that occurs suddenly, after a single (within one working day, one shift) exposure to harmful occupational factors, resulting in a temporary or persistent loss of professional capacity for work. As a rule, it is inhalation poisoning.
Chronic occupational disease is a disease that occurs as a result of prolonged exposure to harmful occupational factors, resulting in a temporary or persistent loss of professional capacity for work. The vast majority (about 95%) of occupational diseases is chronic.
Practice shows that painful changes in the body can quietly accumulate over the years and suddenly manifest as a severe occupational disease. Therefore, occupational diseases often result in occupational disabilities workers. For example, almost all patients with pneumoconioses get a professional disability and are forced to change their profession. In addition, the death rate of persons with occupational diseases from the common diseases that have joined and developing under the influence of harmful production factors is ten times higher than among the general population.
Another very common adverse effect of exposure to unfavorable working conditions, other than illness, is a injury, violation of the anatomical integrity or physiological functions of human tissues or organs, caused by sudden external effects. Minor cuts, sprains and other relatively light injuries, which do not lead to disability, are often called microtrauma. Trauma that caused death is called a fatal injury. The totality of all injuries, the very phenomenon of getting them is called traumatism.
To assess injury, you need to know the frequency of injury, their severity (from a medical point of view) and long-term social consequences (social severity).
The possibility of obtaining disease and (or) trauma, including lethal, in the process of labor adds to the medical and biological consequences (trauma, illness, injury, disability, death) negative social consequences. These consequences are essentially the dangers of labor as a social relation. These include a partial or total loss of efficiency, professional capacity for work, general working capacity.
It should be emphasized that even a small loss of ability to work efficiently can be an insurmountable obstacle in maintaining and (or) obtaining work, especially when labor force is redundant in the labor market.
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