Analysing The Functions Of Halal Slaughter Biology Essay

Harmonisation of Halal standard can be an urge in the current market and there are several main aspects that we need to focus on for harmonisation. In the next time, we will discuss about aspects in Halal standard that needs to be harmonise between ASEAN countries.

Malaysia Halal documentation is dependant on the Malaysian standard of MS 1500:2009 which is the overall Guidelines protected the Halal Food Development, Prep, Handling and Storage area. Brunei Darussalam standard is PBD 24:2007 on Halal Food which prepared by its national Religious Council. Thailand Country wide Halal Standard of THS 24000:2552 regarding General Guidelines on Halal Products is prepared by the Central Islamic Committee of Thailand. Indonesia Halal standard is known as General Guidelines of Halal Assurance System LPPOM MUI and being shared on year 2008. Finally, Singapore's MUIS Halal Recognition Standard is regarding the General Rules for the Handling and Control of Halal Food. All this standards will be compare and contrast in the following session to see the similarity and distinctions. Each of the requirements will be demand short in the text by national standard.

4. 1 Animal Welfare

Animal welfare has been regard as an essential requirement in Halal slaughtering. Slaughtering work which bring about poor lower, bad bleeding and poor loss of awareness and pain are believed as violating the animal welfare in Islamic Laws (Chambers and Grandin, 2001). In Thailand National Halal Standard, it declare that pet animal welfare should be guarded regarding to Islamic legislation and performed exactly to diminish canine maltreatment. Hence, family pets must be supply with enough normal water and taken an escape properly before slaughter and the animal will be instantly slaughter by distinct blade and their epidermis should not be trim before it is completely inactive. MUIS Halal Documentation Standard of Singapore regarding general recommendations for the handling and control of Halal food also stated that pet should be rested and given. In addition, it had stated that area to hold the family pets before slaughtering shouldn't be near to the slaughtering place by making a significant distance to ensure that the family pets in retaining area won't see or sense the slaughtering action.

Indonesia's Recommendations on Fowl Slaughtering and Rooster Meats Handling in Small Size Hen Slaughterhouses also had mentioned that pet animal welfare should be applied based on several basics which are flexibility from cravings for food, thirst, uncomfortableness, pain, damage, disease, fear and stress, while freedom expressing normal behavior. However, others countries Halal standard such as standard from Malaysia and Brunei do not plainly stated about actions to protect pet welfare. Hence, these actions should be harmonised among countries to ensure that the family pets are cured well and accordingly prior slaughtering to reduce the possibility of maltreatment.

4. 2 Slaughtering

In different countries, there may have different methods for slaughtering the pets, hence a standard should be establish among ASEAN countries. By having a harmonised Halal standard, the slaughtering operations can be harmonized and deals of meats between ASEAN countries or importation of meats from other countries can be facilitated.

Lawful animals to be slaughters are make reference to chicken and ruminant. Examples of poultry are chicken, duck, turkey, ostrich and quail of any years or gender; while ruminant permitted to slaughtered, prepared and stored are cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, deer, camel among others ruminants (JAKIM, 2008). Fishes and other sea pets are excluded and any form of merciful killing methods can also be utilized (MUIS, 2005). Most of the Halal slaughtering recommendations in ASEAN countries are similar, in support of certain tips are dissimilar and those tips should be harmonised to accomplish better similarity and popularity of Halal beef product among these countries. Although a ASEAN standard suggestions on the preparation and handling of Halal food can be acquired, nevertheless the slaughtering rules explained are too standard, so a far more specific rules should be shared to guarantee the practice of slaughtering will be same among ASEAN nations.

On the other side, the proper pronunciation of the word to recite prior the slaughtering acts on canine also slightly different among countries. But the ASEAN general guidelines had stated as "Bismillah ", but most countries do not follow this wording. Although all the key phrase are identifies similar meaning which is "In the name of Allah Most Gracious, Most Merciful" or "In the name of Allah, Allah is the Greatest", Malaysia stated the phrase to be invoked immediately before slaughtering in Arabic "", while Brunei version is "", Thailand version is "Bismillah Allahu Akhbar", Indonesia version is "Bismillahi Allahu Akbar", and Singapore version only stated to recite Basmalah but didn't stated the precise key phrase wording. The Muslim slaughterman should recite the same saying prior slaughtering, so harmonization can be should be achieved to accomplish it.

In ASEAN basic suggestions, it only stated that it will severe the trachea, oesophagus, main arteries and veins of the neck of the guitar region, while Malaysia, Brunei and Thailand's Halal Standard will be more specific and specified that slaughtering act shall start with an incision on the neck of the guitar at some point just underneath the glottis and following the glottis for long necked animals, then the part to severe are trachea, oesophagus, and both carotid arteries and jugular veins to hasten the bleeding and loss of life of the pet. It also required that bleeding be spontaneous and complete. Malaysia and Brunei's standard also exhibited the slaughtering part for fowl and cattle evidently with figure. Alternatively, different term also had been use to spell it out the area of the pet animal, where trachea is known as windpipe and oesophagus is recognized as gullet in Singapore Standard. Singapore's Standard only explained to cut the windpipe, gullet and jugular vein but didn't described on the arteries that needs to be severed; while Indonesia's Halal standard only talked about on reducing the trachea, esophagus and two neck arteries but didn't described on its veins. The Indonesia's Halal standard also needed that the position of the to-be-slaughtered poultry to facing the Kiblat which said to be recommended by Islamic Regulation, but this necessity did not found in any standard in the other ASEAN countries. Hence, parts of pets, term to specify and method for slaughtering take action should be identified clearly and better with numbers, so the slaughterman could slaughter the animal accordingly and standardized among ASEAN countries.

4. 2. 1 Stunning

Stunning is a step to make the animal unconscious before the slaughtering to remove possible pain, discomfort and stress from slaughtering process (Chambers and Grandin, 2001). Although process of stunning is not encourage in almost all of the Halal Guide, but it is allowed if it completed within the specified condition. The ASEAN basic guidelines which set up on the year 1997 had stated that only electro-mechanical and mechanised stunning can be use and this stunning should not kill or injured the animal. Chicken are generally decided to be stunned with electric powered water shower stunning method among the ASEAN countries. Only Indonesia Rules on slaughtering possessed mentioned additional one kind of stunning method which is manual stunner where it handled by touching the chicken mind with a steel electrified with certain voltage and ampere. This sort of method was not stated in the guidelines of others countries and might not exactly be permitted in some of these countries.

The ASEAN basic guidelines explained that only mechanised stunner should be use in cattle and buffaloes and stunner which do not permeate or break the skull should be use to avoid causing any incidents to the pet and it stated that non-penetrative type (mushroom head) percussion stunner should be allowed. However, according to the decision of Malaysia Fatwa, non-penetrative captive bolt (mushroom head gun) is unlawful, but it allow electrical power stunning method which of the type of mind only stunner apart from mechanised stunner. Pneumatic percussive stunning for cows is allowed if the skull of the pet stunned did not crack or will not causing the fatality of the pet. Thailand's Halal Standard experienced declare that only electrically stunning of head-only stunner which attached to both electrodes on animal's mind are approved. It also allowed the non-penetrative stunner (mushroom head type) for stunning of pets. However, Brunei, Indonesia and Singapore standard just mentioned that stunning process is allowed if it does not cause animal death before slaughtered but didn't list out the specs for stunning. All the stunning method should be specified and harmonised, so cases of non-compliances to the importing countries standard won't occur during importation or exportation of the Halal beef product and the exporting product will not be banned and triggers any economic damage.

4. 2. 2 Mechanical Slaughtering

In ASEAN general guidelines, it experienced stated that mechanical slaughter of poultry is permitted if certain condition can be fulfilled. However, regarding to Brunei Halal standard, it got totally prohibited the mechanical slaughtering of Halal pets or animals, meaning the slaughtering take action should only be done by the real human slaughterer. Alternatively, Malaysia and Thailand have specified standard and condition explained in the guidelines of mechanised slaughtering of chicken, while Indonesia and Singapore do not specified conditions and condition related to mechanical slaughtering in their Halal standard. Relating Fatwa Indonesia, they had decide that mechanised slaughtering which scheduled to technological advancement are permitted and pet animal slaughtered with this technique is Halal, but aspect requirement are not stated.

Requirements for mechanised slaughtering in Malaysia and Thailand are largely like the ASEAN standard guideline's need which required the slaughterer to obviously invoke the prayer of "Bismilah" before moving over on the mechanised knife and the blade must be sole steel cutter type which is razor-sharp, clean without contaminant and used for Halal slaughtering only. Every time a slaughterer desires to leaves the slaughter place or replace by another slaughterer, he must stop the mechanical knife operation first and another slaughterer should again invoke the prayer before moving over the knife again. The slaughtering work by mechanical blade should severe the trachea, oesophagus and both carotid arteries and jugular veins of the chicken and any chicken which overlooked by the mechanised knife will be slaughter manually by hand.

The other two countries which don't have specified terms and condition about mechanised slaughtering should express their need in the typical either they allowed or prohibited the act, so it could decrease the confusion to the slaughtering house and reduce the trade between countries. Since Brunei insist to prohibited on mechanised slaughtering, it might end up being the trade barrier of Halal food between ASEAN countries, so this issue must be cured well with harmonisation of standard and consensus among these countries.

4. 2. 3 Thoracic Stick

According to Wan-Hassan (2007), he explained that delisting of Australian and New Zealand Halal beef designer by JAKIM Malaysia because of thoracic sticking had causes lack of export of these countries amounted to $53 million. However, later on a seminar between Malaysia Fatwa Committee possessed discuss on this issue and decided that thoracic sticking method, which is the excess treatment after slaughtering of dog is permitted and the meats following this action remain considered as Halal. The decision of Fatwa Committee regarding this problem had explained several conditions to be fulfilled which are the slaughtering work must be complete before thoracic sticking where the trachea, oesophagus and two jugular veins must be severed. The pet must be died because of slaughtering, while thoracic sticking only functions to increase the death which only can be performed 30 seconds after the slaughtering act.

There are no information could be found about thoracic sticking in others ASEAN countries Halal standard, so a detailed requirements and agreement on thoracic sticking should be properly explained in each country's regulation and being harmonised among them. This step could raise the Halal position of the merchandise, while on the same time it might reduces the economical lack of exporting countries preventing their product restricted by ASEAN countries.

4. 3 Labeling Criteria and Requirement

The ASEAN basic guidelines on Halal Food didn't stated any labeling necessity about Halal food product. However, by referring to the labeling specifications in each country's Halal suggestions, we had found that Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore and Thailand experienced explained standard and need about labeling, while Indonesia Halal standard didn't mentioned the requirement for labeling. Malaysia and Brunei standard are similar, while Thailand Halal standard is slightly different because it is greater detail with more standards. Generally, Malaysia and Brunei Halal standard required that the labeling materials used should be non-hazardous and Halal. Then, each pot should be label with name of the product, nett weight, name and address of the manufacturer, importer and distributor, set of ingredients, code quantity identifying night out and or batch number of production and expiry particular date with country of origins. Meat products are required to label with time frame of slaughter and time frame of processing. Singapore Halal label rules is extracted from its certification conditions and condition where it stated the Halal label specification such as period, width, colour, serial number, toughness and material.

Thailand requirement for labeling will vary from the countries reviewed, which required the producer to specifiy legibly the product ingredients, especially for product which included makroh element or consist of animals and fish. In addition, it required the merchandise which comprised genetically altered foods, or extra fat, meat parts or derivatives of extra fat such as gelatin and rennin to be evidently specified on the label. The typical also required the Halal product to be tagged with nutrition fact. On the other hand, meat products are additional required to have information about pet animal health qualification on its labeling. Make such as official stamp must proof the Halal slaughtering take action and the branding ink should be secure and non-hazardous. In addition, it stated that Halal logo design should specify the business in charge and required the recognition number to be imprinted on product.

Halal logo which really is a label issued following the Halal food product have been proven of its Halal status by Halal documentation authorities. By getting the proper label of Halal company logo, it also helps to avoid the product from being blended or polluted with materials which are non-Halal. Hence, by attaching a Halal logo design on the label, it possessed proven that the merchandise is safe and suitable to be used by Muslim consumer. The Halal custom logo on food product is more important and very important to Muslim consumers than ISO or other similar documentation because it could indicate the wholesomeness of the food and it proven the food is ritually clean (Shafie and Othman, 2006).

However, all the ASEAN countries or countries worldwide are experiencing own national Halal logo, but national emblem is not useful on another countries, so foods which routine to be export must be special amend on the labeling to comply with the importing countries requirements. When the Halal logo using its Halal qualification process could be harmonized worldwide or at least among ASEAN countries, it will be can reduce the trade of Halal food between countries and reduces the additional work load for exportation of Halal food. Although ASEAN standard guidelines on Halal food handling had suggest that food products which produced based on the standard could be label with a ASEAN label and Country wide Halal logo design to proved it Halal status, but we've discovered that almost all of the product still did not label the Halal food with this way. It could due to that certain country do not identify and approve the Halal standard of another country.


4. 4 Laboratory Testing

Laboratory tests can be use to confirm that the Halal food product are clear of sources which is haram and clear of contaminants of haram element. Based on the subsection of confirmation methods in Thailand Halal standard, the confirmation testing may include profile screening; physical, chemical and microbiology analysis; blood and blood vessels products test; genetically altered products, preservatives, and additives examination; and through inspecting of presentation and presentation materials. Halal key concern is of the contaminant from ethyl liquor and pork origin, so most of the laboratory trials is to verify that the meals products are clear of contamination by these materials.

However, only Thailand Halal standard got generally stated about the rules for verification by laboratory evaluation without identify the detail strategy, while some ASEAN countries totally did not stated any necessity or rules about laboratory screening for verification the Halal status of the merchandise. Presently, JAKIM in Malaysia also don't have full range of research and development device and it need the the help of third party to run the laboratory screening and evaluation to certify the Halal position of the product (Shafie and Othman, 2006). The laboratory testing and analysis methodology varies between different lab screening centres, so standardization should be carry out to obtained similar level of Halal verification nationally. Basically, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and Polymerase String Reaction (PCR) will be used in laboratory for detection of forbidden substances, such as PCR is used to detect pork DNA, while ELISA is employed to discover the presence of antibody or antigen in the product (Zareena, 2010).

News had discovered that JAKIM (Malaysia) will create a government-owned Halal research lab by 2012 in Bandar Enstek, Nilai to analysed Halal product. This will be the first country in the global to own governmental centered Halal analysis lab. Datuk Seri Jamil Khir Baharom, Minister in the Primary Minister's Office in Malaysia also said that after the Halal Work being legislated, JAKIM would be the only body to issue Halal certificates and private sector will never be allowed to accomplish that ever again (Bernama, 2011). These laboratory will conduct research on food among others product to confirm the Halal position, and it will be used by local and foreign food manufacturers. If this Halal research laboratory by JAKIM could increase their potential, it may end up being the centre for Halal analysis laboratory to perform test for products from ASEAN countries for Halal product status. Hence, it may become a factor for harmonisation of the laboratory evaluation method among ASEAN countries. This step may create a standardized requirement on laboratory screening and methodology, so laboratory testing of product for Halal certification among ASEAN countries could be evenly recognised.

5. 0 Solutions for Harmonization

Harmonization of the ASEAN Halal standard is the need for ASEAN countries; so many particular authorities had been putting work on finding the suitable approaches to harmonize the standard and get consensus arrangement on the execution in line with the harmonized Halal standard.

5. 1 Reference point Standard

Currently, there is absolutely no single guide point for Halal standard that is accepted worldwide as the industry standard, so all the countries are actually having their own national Halal standard for the documentation structure (MITI, 2006). To create an ASEAN Halal standard that is able to be use easily in ASEAN countries, usually it needs to base on several guide standards. The guide standard could be countrywide Halal standard, Codex guidelines, local Halal standard or others. Currently, a Codex rules which named by General Suggestions for Usage of the Term "Halal" is open to be refers by all countries worldwide, but it scarcely cover and recommend on the use of Halal statements and Halal food labeling with defining of the term Halal but do not encompass all areas related to Halal food development. Generally, Codex is being known as a typical which is effective for dispute settlement, therefore the Codex Standard Standard should be develop and leverage to include more aspects of Halal food preparation, handling and development. On the other hand, MABIMS which is the Association of Religious Ministers of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore experienced also created a Technical Committee and create a MABIMS Guidelines for Preparation of Drink and food for Muslims. Both Codex and MABIMS recommendations also had been act as reference to develop the ASEAN Basic Guideline (Ad-Hoc Working Group, 1997).

ASEAN ad-hoc working group is a committee which include representative from Senior Officers Appointment of the ASEAN Ministers of Agriculture and Forestry (SOM-AMAF) and religious authorities of each ASEAN member country. Among the functions of the committee is to organize the multinational plan and develop the ASEAN General Recommendations on the Preparation and Handling of Halal Food. This ASEAN basic guideline have been published on 12 months 1997. However, this standard guidelines is too brief, nor covered every aspect, so it cannot be totally implemented or enforces by the ASEAN countries through the accreditation of Halal certificate, whilst every of the ASEAN countries only follow with their own national suggestions. This guideline is developed almost 14 years ago and many aspects may be altered or obsolete, so that it require to examine or update on a regular basis such as one per year to keep bettering the available guide to a far more broadening aspects covering Halal.

Among ten countries in ASEAN, there are 5 countries (Malaysia, Brunei, Thailand, Indonesia and Singapore) that have their own countrywide Halal standard. Malaysian Requirements of MS 1500: 2009 which is a ISO compliance standard experienced also being use as referrals to set-up the Codex General Guidelines for Usage of the Term "Halal". It means an international or local recommendations can be made by refers to others countries nationwide standard. As talked about in the previous section, there are several aspects that contain been found to be turmoil among different countrywide standard. That is scheduled to different country have different interpretation on major concern, while some countries have stricter requirement than the other countries or had lower tolerance toward progression of technology for production. However, all these national requirements and regional standard should be integrated by compare on the requirements between each nationwide standard. Then, middle floor or highest tolerance limits which could be achieved and decided by each region will be set. Hence, barrier to trade anticipated to are different of national Halal standard can be fixed and food trade among ASEAN countries could be facilitated. This solution seems effective but actually rather difficult to put into practice because normally each country will have their own stand point about the Halal food handling and production.

These activities of finding and integrating the rules available in ASEAN region and international work to be used in setting a general guideline to be utilized in ASEAN countries. The assortment of recommendations standard should be continue done by the ASEAN ad-hoc working group plus they may also identifies the activities or effort that were done by International Halal Integrity (IHI) Alliance or Group of Islamic Convention (OIC) land. IHI Alliance could be a vehicle to build up, apply, maintain and harmonize the Halal standard because it is a non-profit, non-governmental and non-national body which provides a platform for its members to talk about information and interact for integrity of the Halal industry (Wan-Hassan, 2007). This body is further strengthen by cooperation between IHI Alliance and the Islamic Chamber of Business and Industry (ICCI). This ICCI-IHI collaboration acquired launched four modules regarding Logistics, Food Services, Slaughtering and Processing, and Animal Welfare, while plan to launched another four new modules of Lab and Testing, Animal Feed, Food Control, and Beauty products and Toiletries to aid OIC member countries in establishing a structured domestic Halal assurance body with proper documentation scheme (The Star, 2010). Their work on this concern is because of only less than 10 out of 57 OIC member countries are experiencing a set up Halal standard, so they can be supporting by harmonize the global standard and become a reference for others countries. The ICCI-IHI cooperation had developed the standard by refers to the The International Company for Standardization/ The International Electrotechnical Commision (ISO/IEC), Rules for International Expectations Development, while sticking with World Trade Organisation's Complex Barriers to Trade Agreement, Code of Good Practice for Specifications Development (IHI, 2010). ASEAN countries can adopt or use the modules developed by ICCI-IHI collaboration as the personal references standard to product a harmonize standard to be use among the region.

5. 2 Establishing Benchmark Standard

Instead on only setting the guidelines, benchmark standard is also an important area to be setup in harmonizing the standard between ASEAN countries. A guide without proper benchmark level will be worthless. Certifying body uses the benchmark standard for accreditation of the Halal license. Corresponding Darhim (2008), benchmark standard of recognition body can be generated corresponding to ISO/IEC Guide 65 which related to General Requirements for Physiques Operating Product Recognition Systems. Additionally it is important to get the Syariah variables that established from reputable religious specialists and work within these parameters to set the benchmark. Research and development in technological analytical approach to non-Halal component can assist in establishing benchmarks for a specific aspect. The benchmark standard must be within the particular level which satisfied and accepted by Muslims, while possible by the industry. Strict Halal standard which able to satisfied the Muslim people, but not attainable will not bring benefits to any people. Hence, middle floor which is the generally acceptable benchmark needs to be established to gratify both Muslim populace and industry. With a harmonized Halal benchmarks and qualification system, Muslim consumer could be comfortable on the right quality of product they obtained and accomplish the regional trade.

IHI Alliance is putting effort on preparing a benchmark standard which is an important aspect in harmonization of the Halal standard among global countries. For instance, the benchmark benchmarks that require to be place are such as amount of current to stun different animals, amount of alcohol which not produced from liquor development that permitted in foods among others. These benchmark have to be set to settle any possible dispute that happen during trade of Halal product between ASEAN countries. It isn't automatically that ASEAN countries need to be based upon the IHI Alliance to create the standard, the ASEAN ad-hoc working group which made up of people from all ASEAN country could also putting work in this aspect. The setting of benchmark standard should be simpler to achieve within ASEAN countries in comparison to IHI Alliance because IHI Alliance aim to harmonize the Halal standard worldwide but ASEAN ad-hoc working group only harmonize and placing standard for 10 associates of ASEAN countries. However, there are also people stated a certification scheme for many is difficult to achieved because it cannot meet up with the needs of most certification body, if only one is necessary, it need to take long time to harmonise. So, Dr Jochen Zoller, who is the Chief executive of Food Services Division at Intertek UK got suggested to create a Halal standard with independent alternative party qualification body, like Uk Retail Consortium which present Food Tech Standard to possess small control over the production process of producer who find the BRC certificate.

5. 2. 1 Minimum Core Standard

In the research newspaper by Wan-Hassan (2007), he mentioned that Dr. Habib M'Nasri, Director of Quality Control at McDonald's International had advised the establishment of Least Core Standard through the convention of World Halal Forum on 12 months 2007. Minimum Key Standard can act as an approach to harmonize the Halal standard between countries, as the least core hold the zero tolerance for some basic issues with addendums applied to every individual country. An addendum is a portion of extra information which added to something and in cases like this it is added on clarify the minimum key. This action may be able to set a benchmark standard among countries.

In this model, the addendum will list out each country with their clearly defined requirements to approve an action as Halal, as the core will be the minimum amount limit and common surface where each country can follow and achieved. For instance, the Minimum Main Standard will set zero tolerance for some basic issues such as pork and alcohol with addendum put on each individual country. On the other hand, Minimum Core Standard might be used for certain controversial concern such as mechanised slaughtering for poultry, where Malaysia and Thailand allowed the mechanical slaughtering, but Brunei prohibited it. So, bare minimum main or common earth should be found between these countries to help in the trade of Halal products and the Minimum amount Core Standard enable you to achieve this. However, certain countries like Vietnam and Myanmar do not even have a national Halal standard, so that it causes difficulty to implement the Minimum Central Standard, as in the addendum cannot apply appropriately with countries without proper Halal Standard. For me, those countries without proper Halal standard may follow the minimum amount primary which is the consensus between countries with Halal standard.

5. 3 Industry and Administration Effort

To come out with a regional Halal standard for Halal product, it required the major merged effort between the industry and authorities. By cooperation of various parties and expert on issue regarding Halal, it can boost or catalyst the procedure of harmonization of the ASEAN Halal Standard (Khaleej Times Online, 2008). Prior to the Halal standard could be harmonize between countries, harmonize qualification system should be employed in this nation first. A development of the Halal industry can ensure the conformity of the industries to the mentioned certification standard. For example, Malaysia is likely to carry out the systemic development of the entire value chain by establishing of Halal parks. Insurance agencies Halal area which focused on the downstream development of Halal product, the product produced would get rid non-Halal contaminant and having essential infrastructure, adequate shared facilities with service agency situated in these recreation area.

On the other hands, coordination among ministries and firms are also necessary to promote and develop the Halal industry (MITI, 2006).

Government and industry need to get consensus regarding the requirement for Halal product to catalyst the harmonization and execution of the Halal standard. Authorities will put work in creating the benchmark standard for the market sectors to check out, while government organization especially government bodies for Halal qualification will enforce the typical and given Halal license for product which adhere to the requirement in the standard. On the other hand, inter-governmental body such as Islamic regulators from each ASEAN country should put effort on harmonization of Halal Standard among ASEAN countries, by jointly facing the task of harmonization and finding solution to resolve those problems. Midsection floor should be found between countries, so each country could tolerate with the standard being setup and presenting full determination on the enforcement and execution of the typical.

5. 4 Enhancing Research and Development

Research task regarding Halal should be achieved by qualification body, private areas, universities and technological centers to evidently define the term and necessity in Halal, so harmonization process can be carry out by having more understanding onto it. Research and development in technology also experienced generating alternative way for control of food, drugs, aesthetic and additive (the panjang lebar record). These newly developed functions should be carefully monitored in order that it complies with the Halal principle.

The development and development of the Halal food industry required an equilibrium of knowledge and experience in various field, so federal of each country should support the research and development program in their Halal food sector. The area for research and development are technical and sciences development, especially on the field of food technology, biochemistry and microbiology. Reliable clinical method is required to analyse for just about any possible life of non-Halal aspect in Halal product. Federal should support the research and development activities in industry because they build and providing screening facilities to investigate the Halal products. Training should be given to create more skilled analyst or scientist which getting the skill and ability in examining the test of product that are looking to promise as Halal. Research and development on Halal business and management are also required to enhance the Halal sectors too (section 21).

By having research and development program, it could create a knowledge foundation that support by technological validation. By establishing research and development infrastructure like analysis laboratory, it could help to handle new issues regarding Halal such as discovering the contaminant of pork derivatives or alcohol in the food product via scientific analysis (Darhim, 2008). By progression in the research and development sector, even track amount of the non-Halal contaminant could be detected in the food materials. Research and development could also provide innovative alternatives such as laboratory analysis that may be commercialised between ASEAN countries (Darhim, 2008). With similar way for laboratory analysis of non-Halal contaminant of food, the consequence of the test will be more accurate and consistent between countries. Consensus of the Halal position for a product could be achieved easier insurance firms standardized analysis strategy.

The scientific method to be utilized in evaluation should be delicate and strong enough to identify origin of the element even in complicated food products. Lab analyses for non-Halal components usually are based on certain biomarkers, such as oil or fat-based biomarker, protein-based biomarker, DNA-based biomarker and metabolites-based biomarker. Adulteration is now a major matter within food industry and consumer, so it is important to check that if the product contains pig and its own derivatives, dog enzyme from non-Halal options, emulsifiers made from pig derivatives, alcoholic beverages and heavy metal contaminant or any material which are considered as non-Halal food substances, additive and contaminant. DNA-based strategy is a far more favourable way for species identification because DNA is secure even after processing. The clinical methodologies which used as the analytical tools for recognition contaminants include conventional Polymerase Chain Effect (PCR), Real-Time PCR, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Elecronic Nasal, Differntial Scanning Calorimetry, Amino Acid Sequencing, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer-Mass Spectrometer (GS-MS-MS), Water Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer-Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS-MS), Inductively-Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (ICP), Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), Immunoassay and Electrophoresis (Yaakob dan Shuhaimi, 2010; Khairul dan Norazlina, 2008). Certain chemical screening and microscopic determinations could also employ as research for Halal food authentication (Yaakob, 2006).

Chambers, P. G. & Grandin, T. 2001. Rules for Humane Handling, Transport and Slaughter of Livestock. Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), Regional Office for Asia and Pacific.

Shafie, S. & Othman, N. 2006. Halal certification: International marketing issues and obstacles. Paper shown at IFSAM VIII World Congress 2006, September 28-30, Berlin, Germany.

Zareena, A. 2010. Discovering Pork Content DOABLE, Cheaper, Faster. Brunei Times.

Bernama, 2010. First Authorities Halal Analysis Laboratory Ready in 2012.

Wan-Hassan, W. M. (2007) 'Globalising Halal Benchmarks: Issues and Problems', The Halal Journal, July - August, 38-40.




http://www. ihialliance. org/news_detail. php?nid=149

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yaakob dan shuhaimi. http://www. hdcglobal. com/upload-web/cms-editor-files/b08c8a04-c946-4ebe-99b9-2492bd32fcfc/file/21%29%20Prof%20Dr%20Yaakob%20Che%20Man. pdf

Khairul dan norazlina. http://www. Halaljournal. com/article/2948/who%E2%80%99s-the-%E2%80%9Cnew-kid-on-the-block%E2%80%9D-in-Halal-detection-science

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