Body Procedures of the Digestive System

  • Magdalena Mustafa

Digestive System

Digestive system is made up of the digestive system and other accessory organs. The purpose of digestive system is to convert food into small molecules that can be later on soaked up and employed by the cells in the body. Food is divided, until the molecules are minimal enough to be ingested and the waste material disposed. Alimentary canal or gastrointestinal (GI) tract are the various names for digestive tract, they contains an extended regular tube that start in the mouth, and goes down to the anus. The system includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, abdominal, small intestine, and large intestine. The accessories structures that can be found in the mouth area are tongue and pearly whites. Salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas are major accessories organ that play and important part along the way of digestion. These organs secrete fluids to the digestive system. You can find three types of operations that take place in the digestive function system
  1. Digestion
  2. Absorption
  3. Elimination

The two procedures - digestion and absorption - happen in the digestive system. After the procedure for absorption of the nutrients, they are ready for all skin cells in the torso and then are utilized in metabolism. When the meals that cannot be digested or utilized by your body, it is taken away. The unwanted waste material are in form of feces, that are called defecation or eradication.

Mouth - The digestive tract starts with mouth. When food gets into mouth area the chewing process reduces food into smaller substances for easier digestive function, when saliva mixes with food the procedure of breaking down begins in the torso, where everything begins to be ingested and used in your body. Esophagus- Esophagus is located in the neck near trachea, the esophagus is getting food from the mouth if it is swallowed.

Stomach - The meals enters the tummy through the passage of the cardiac sphincter. Food is further damaged in the belly, through an activity of heuristic churning and is completely blended with digestive essential fluids, which is hydrochloric acid, and other digestive enzymes. The role of parietal cells of the stomach is to secrete a ingredient, which is an elemental factor in the vitamin supplements B-12 absorption. When the amount of acidity changes in the small intestines, more of the enzymes are being turned on to break apart the composition of the precise nutrients to allow them to be absorbed into the circulatory or lymphatic systems. Small intestine - The role of small intestine is to absorb the majority of the nutrition found within digested food. By the time ingested food grows to the small intestine, it experienced a process of mechanically broking down substances into a liquid. As the liquid techniques across the internal surface of the small intestine, nutrition from the food come into contact with the many small blood vessels which surround the tiny intestine. The interior surface of the small intestine offers a great deal of small folds to increase the surface. The blood exits the tiny intestine, transporting away all the necessary proteins and nutrients, water electrolytes, supplements, minerals, extra fat and medications to the whole body.

  • Pancreas - The pancreas produce enzyme called insulin and pancreatic juice. Insulin is vital in body as it manages sugar levels and also pancreatic juices contain enzymes that split up fats, protein, and starch.
  • Liver - Liver produces bile, which is stored in the gallbladder before small intestine needs it to split up large fat allergens.
  • Gallbladder - The gallbladder stores the bile until it's needed for digestion in the small intestines.
  • Colon (large intestine) - The function of large intestine is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food, and then to go away worthless and undigested waste from the body.
  • Rectum & Anus - The waste left over when food is digested by other organs in the intestinal pathway still has some drinking water, and also bacterias and fibre. The Anus takes out all the waste and unwanted chemicals from your body.

The bolus passes into the tummy through the cardiac sphincter bought at underneath of the oesophagus. The abdomen is an extremely flexible sac this is the site of mechanical and chemical digestive function, especially of proteins. It also absorbs certain substances and is capable of storing food for an extended period of their time. The wall of the abdomen is lined with many exocrine glands for example the gastric glands that secrete gastric juice into abdominal lumen. There are four types of cells found in these glands. Mucous skin cells, as the name implies, these skin cells secrete a sticky mucus compound, composed of glycoprotein, normal water, ions and other activities. The mucus lubricates the liner of the belly and also defends the lining of the stomach from degradation due to the highly acidic environment. The next type is named chief skin cells. These cells release the zymogen of the abdomen called pepsinogen. Pepsinogen is changed into an active enzyme called pepsin by a minimal pH2. Pepsin change proteins into smaller polypeptides. Chief cells are found deeper within the exocrine gland of the abdomen. Another type is called parietal cells. These cells produce and secrete hydrophilic acid (HCl), which assists a number of important functions. It increases the acidity of the stomach and stimulates the principle cells to release pepsinogen, then convert pepsinogen into its lively form called pepsin, it also denatures protein, which allow pepsin to cleave connection and kill bacterial skin cells.

Parietal cells also produce and secrete a glycoprotein called gastric intrinsic factor, which helps the tiny intestine absorb vitamin supplements B12. The next type of cells found in belly is G cells. These kinds of cells are found profound in the exocrine glands and to push out a hormone called gastrin. This peptide hormone stimulates parietal skin cells release a hydrochloric acid. G cells are stimulated by acetylcholine. Other important cell in the abdominal is the enterochromaffin-like cell. These cells to push out a molecule called histamine, which stimulates parietal skin cells.


The stomach does absorb some chemicals, such as alcohol, aspirin and level of caffeine, it acts mainly in mechanical and chemical digestive function. The cells interact to create gastric juice, which reduces proteins into smaller polypeptides. The mixing of gastric drink and food produces a fluid-like chemical to create chime.

In the digestive system there are two types of nerves, their role is to assist with control of most actions in the system. The first one is extrinsic nerve, which is not controlled by the brain or spinal-cord. This sort of nerve is accountable for release a substance called acetylcholine and the other one adrenaline. The acetylcholine in the digestive function tract makes the muscle of the digestive organs to squeeze with increased drive to push food and fluids though the digestive tract, it also causes pancreas and abdominal to make more intestinal juices. The other nerve adrenaline also performs an important role in digestion. It creates the muscles of the intestines and stomach to relax, and lower the blood circulation to these organs.

The nerves that are present inside, are called intrinsic. They may be a dense network that place in the wall space of the abdomen, oesophagus, small intestine and digestive tract. Intrinsic nerves are brought on to work when the surfaces of the hollow organs are extended by moving food. Also various chemicals are released that can delay or increase the process and motion of food particles and the creation of juices by the specialised intestinal organs.

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