This test was made to compare the performance between eggshell and rice husk ash (RHA) on the development rate of plant life, also to compare success of these two substances as organic fertilizers with the normal used organic garden soil mix. The methodology applied was by using same amount of topics (fertilizers), which was three one fourth of the pot is occupied by fertilizers. Each fertilizer was examined by using three vegetation of the same varieties at age fourteen days. The readings of eight plants (included two vegetation that used as control) were gathered for three months by weekly. Taking a general summary, the development rate of plant life which used eggshell as fertilizer was higher than that of RHA's with the mean of expansion rate of 37. 3% and 13. 8% respectively. Statistical testing was proven on the info collected using Kruskal-Wallis's ensure that you led to rejection of null hypothesis which stated that there would be no factor between your rates of development from the plants of these two fertilizers. The results eventually backed the experimental hypothesis having said that there was factor between expansion rate for the vegetation with eggshell in its soil and RHA's as the test statistic for the fertilizers was higher than that of critical value at 2. 5% significant level.
Key words- Eggshell, Rice Husk Ash, Fertilizer, Crops, Growth rate
Research and Rationale
This experiment is designed to research two different chemicals; eggshell and rice husk ash (RHA) which were believed could act as fertilizer to vegetation, hence evaluating the effectiveness of both in increasing the growth rate of plant life.
Many experts presumed that the eggshell comprises of 95% of calcium mineral carbonate, CaCO3 or sustained than that. Because it is made up of calcium, then came the idea that this can supplies the plant with calcium mineral nutrient. Calcium as that which you knew is an essential nutrient for expansion and development of cells in plants. A number of the experts said the eggshell not only provides the vegetation with exclusively calcium nutritional, but within 5% of eggshell, there are other trace nutrients such as magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and zinc. Each one of these nutrients are advantageous to the expansion and health of microorganisms [1, 2].
Figure 1: Chemical structure of CaCO3 in eggshell .
The calcium carbonate in egg shells is similar to the common ground additive lime that probably the best natural source of calcium for seed. Eggshell mainly involves calcium carbonate, that was why this substance does not very soluble in normal water. Despite of their highly insolubility in drinking water, calcium mineral in eggshell boosts the plants expansion by controlling the pH level of highly acidic ground. This is because of the carbonate, CO3 group that present in eggshell. Plants differ in their capability to absorb nutrients because they have got roots with different composition. Other environmental factors, such as normal water and temperature can give influence on both root growth and nutrient availableness. Unless it was grounded into very fine form such as powdered or liquefied form . Eggshell also being sprinkled around the plants to avoid pests like slugs and cutworms from attaining them but it only works if the eggshell was not in powdered or liquefied form. It is because the distinct sided of approximately crushed eggshells that make pests away and this clearly show eggshell can non-toxic pest control too.
Next, I made a decision to use RHA as you of my things when executing the experiment because I've heard a lot that it could become good fertilizer for plants, especially for veg plants (but I have used flower herb for my experiment). My hometown is well-known as "Rice Bowl of Malaysia" for the reason why of producing practically over fifty percent of the country's home grown rice supply. Following the paddy fields being harvested, it'll be burned to carefully turn in to the rice husk ashes. Some research has been done by experts showing you may still find nutrition within the ashes of paddy field. RHA contains more than 80% of Silica and the rest are other essential nutrients such as Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium and Calcium. However, it can not be denied that there were inadequate essential nutrients present in RHA however in the large amount of RHA, these nutrition might be considered a whole lot too .
The eggshell not only offers advantages to the plants by giving nutrients to them but also gives good influence on human bodies. A study done by Dutch has revealed that the eggshells have a great deal of beneficial on human being as it could give positive impact when combined with other nutrients. Predicated on two times blind placebo study, when nutrients like magnesium, zinc and vitamin D were blended to eggshell, the bone density had increased after one year. Another research at Japan Women's University, Yokyo also reported the same result when that they had conducted the experiment on animal which has osteoporosis. The well mixture of vitamin supplements D3 with the eggshell helps in nurturing the density of bones without provides any certainly increment in blood calcium levels . Despite the fact that this study was on mammals, but it still having the opportunity of development rate of organism, therefore i had assumed it was pretty much will give the good effect on vegetation too.
Recent studies from College or university of Calcutta again revealed eggshell do lots more than simply offering the calcium whether to crops or human. They have shown that the eggshell may help in prevent further environment change by its capacity to absorb greenhouse gas Carbon Dioxide almost seven times its own weight. They also suggested that a weak acid will make the shell serves as the SKIN TIGHTENING AND adsorbant which is by separating the membrane from its shell . This study has clearly confirmed that organic fertilizers like egg shells are eco-friendly.
On the other aspect, The National Agricultural Research Center and Takata Anatomist Corp. of Japan have successfully developed the quality fertilizer from RHA. They created the fertilizer which has highly soluble of Silicic Acid on October 2004 which was solely from RHA. This was done by using specific technology produced by their company and they believed that by applying this fertilizer back to the paddy domains, a abundant harvest of rice could be yielded . While there is one studies approved that RHA includes way to obtain potassium which could help in expansion of vegetation. This indirectly can constraint some chemical fertilizers .
Hence this research is this try to explore individually how effective are both substances to act as fertilizers. There are many benefits will be contributed to the surroundings by using both eggshell and RHA as fertilizer domestically. Not merely organisms could tastes the benefits however the environment would also be free from other current problems.
The ground mixtures of eggshells and rice husk ashes will not lead to the same rates of progress on vegetation because they having different compositions of nutrition within the combination (fertilizers) itself.
There is not any significant difference between your rates of growth extracted from the plants which were planted using the eggshells and the rice husk ashes in the soils.
Manipulated adjustable : Type of fertilizers (Crushed Eggshells, Rice Husk Ashes (RHA))
Responding variable : Growth rate of vegetation (based on number of leaves calculated)
Fixed varying : Kind of plant life (Murraya paniculata, commonly called orange
jasmine), amount of drinking water and light provided, years of the plants
(two weeks old)
10 inches flower pots, cultivator, plastic storage bag, rolling pin, gloves and airtight container.
Orange jasmine plant life (two weeks of age, organic and natural soil mix, hen eggshells, rice husk ashes and piped normal water.
A trial experiment has been conducted for exactly three weeks just to determine which fertilizers could lead to the most recognizable bring about its growth rate.
Number of crops used = 4 (2 were using eggshells and 2 were using rice husk ashes)
Crushed eggshells (in powdered form) was blended with the readily mixed organic dirt and put into the flower pot immediately after the vegetation were in. The amount of powdered eggshells placed into the pot was half of the pot itself. While for another two crops, the organic dirt was mixed with the rice husk ashes. The plant life were watering 2 times per day regularly and were put under the shady place.
Observation was carried out for three weeks.
The trial results confirmed that the combination of eggshell and the soil gave simply a little more development of leaves (thus its expansion rate increasing) compared to the RHA's. Predicated on this trial results I decided to continue the true experiment by using both eggshells and the RHA as the fertilizers because both of the things (fertilizers) shown the increment in plant's development rate. Moreover, there were only slightly differences between both of their progress rate.
Real Experimental Procedures
I have used powdered eggshell which I assumed that it could give faster and noticeable results. While for RHA, it was immediately in fine structure after being burned.
First for eggshells fertilizer, the eggshells were rinsed under cold water and dried out completely. These were stored within an airtight pot before being used.
The eggshells were positioned in the cheap storage bag and rolling pin was used to crush them as fine as is possible before being grinded into powdered form.
Then, the fine powdered eggshell was mixed with the garden soil (organic soil combination) carefully by using cultivator with three 1 / 4 of the mix was the eggshell itself.
Before the land mixture was put into the pot, openings under the container were shut down with small stones so that the slots' sizes were not too big.
The concoction was put onto the container right after the plant was at. Last but not least, to moisten the land, flower was watered. Step 3 3 till 5 was repeated for another two plant life.
While for the other three plant life, the same organic and natural soil combination was blended with the rice husk ashes (RHA) which was three quarter of the combination must be from RHA only. The openings under the pots were shut down with small stones too. This step was repeated for another two plant life.
Next, two plant life were planted using the earth organic mixture only, no other chemicals.
The crops were watered with piped water to moisten the ground mixture twice every day.
The observation was transported for 90 days (12 weeks) and amounts of leaves were determined by every week and the progress rate was driven.
The rinsed out eggshells could be added up with the compost however the eggshell was ensured to be rinsed out first so that it was not rotten in the compost which would entice other insects and flies to reach the plants.
Cultivator was used carefully during blending the eggshell and RHA with the organic and natural soil so when the cultivator was used to mix the soil consistently once more inside the container, cultivator was handled more carefully concerning avoid touching the young roots.
Gloves were worn while crushing the eggshells to avoid any injuries. The leaves were left not too wet rather than too dry. It is because excess water may promote the growth of bacteria thus lead to less oxygen availability as to compete with the growing bacteria, an infection and diseases will also develop. The soils material should be held constantly moist but not wet. When the contents were too dry, the procedure of eggshell degrading and other nutrient delivering process will need too much time to react.
The openings under the flower pots were shut using small sizes of stones for both fertilizers used (not for control). The open up holes allowed the powdered eggshell and RHA to be carried along with normal water, this eventually will reduce the stability of my test, so the slots were sealed using the tiny rocks.
Any grasses that growing inside the pots were pulled out concerning avoid interspecific competition with the vegetation.
Data collection in the real experiment
Number of crops used = 8 (three was using eggshell, three was using rice husk ashes and another two acted as the control)
Observation on their volume of leaves and plants were completed for about three months.
Mean of volume of leaves calculated
Growth rate, % =
Differences between mean amounts of leaves of each week with the mean at its preliminary X 100
Mean of amount of leaves at its initial
Growth Rate (%)
Plants with eggshell (with 577 leaves at primary)
Plants with eggshell (with 577 leaves at original)
Plants with eggshell (with 577 leaves at first)
As there were three samples, I have chosen Kruskal- Wallis treatment to perform this test (by using Chi-square circulation) because I want to show that from these three examples of dirt mixtures, all of them are not adding in the same expansion rate of the plants.
± = 0. 025
df = k - 1 = 3 - 1 = 2 ; k= amount of samples used
Thus, the critical value at the significance degree of 2. 5% is () = 7. 38C:\Users\user\Documents\6UN\chisquare. jpg
Table 4: The values which a random adjustable with the distribution on v diplomas 
Figure 4: Graph of circulation with experimental critical value
(Kruskal-Wallis Test is actually right-tailed)
An research using Kruskal-Wallis Test remarked that calculated test statistic, H was higher than the critical value at 2. 5% significant level. There was significant difference between your variety of leaves for the plant life (growth rate) with eggshell in its earth and plant with RHA in land. Hence, null hypothesis is rejected and the experimental hypothesis is accepted.
In my experiment, eggshell and RHA were used as both exhibited increasing reading with their growth rate after conducting the trial test. This suggested that both has their own probable in bringing plants the fundamental additional nutrition so that expansion rate increasing. For the true experiment I put used only two crops were using organic soil mixture as their only fertilizer in order to keep up the control state. The crops under the control condition increased steadily throughout the weeks but nonetheless cannot outweigh the other plants that have been using eggshell and RHA. This approved that the experimental hypothesis was true.
In desk 2, it shown that readings for mean of numbers of leaves were increasing except for week 12 of the eggshell. From 924 mean number of leaves in week 11, it reduced by nine leaves within the next week. This may be having less other nutrition besides of lots calcium within it. Insufficient uptake of other nutrients will lead to more deficit in plant. For example, lack in flat iron may be the reason of lowering of amounts of leaves as it (iron) involved with result of cell progress.
After bar graph of shape 2 was plotted, I had assumed that my previous considered using eggshell as fertilizer was far more effective in comparison to others was definitely correct. It is because the plotted graph was clearly showing that plants with eggshell in soil increasing in significantly huge amount in the expansion rate (%). Vegetable with the eggshell in its dirt has greater range of leaves thus shown that its expansion rate was significantly higher weighed against the plants with RHA. However, plant life that using RHA also displaying the increments but just in small ratio throughout the weeks. This may be the lack of essential nutrition in RHA in comparison to in eggshell. To be stated previously, RHA mainly made up of Silica which as far as I know don't entail in plant expansion by any means. I considered this test successful because of both eggshells' and RHA's showed their efficiency by increasing the expansion rate of plant life while set alongside the vegetation that only used normal organic soil combine.
Based on body 3, it shown which means that of expansion rate by using eggshell as fertilizer has great difference to both RHA's and the control's. The mean of growth rate (%) anticipated to eggshell as the fertilizer is 23. 5% higher than RHA's. So, the percentage difference between both is 63% which is more than half. By comparing between the eggshell's and the control's, the difference is 27. 7% which is significantly huge set alongside the difference of expansion rates' imply between RHA's and the control's which is only 4. 2%. Thus, the action of eggshells as fertilizer proved to be far better than the RHA's.
Error pubs are exhibited on each fertilizer used to symbolize the overall distribution of the info. Upper problem for RHA had not been overlapping with the number of value within the problem club of eggshell. So again, both of these mean of development rate percentages are different significantly. This recognized the theory that by using the eggshells as fertilizer, the plant's growth rate would be higher likened the RHA as fertilizer.
Plotted graph in shape 2 shown the pattern that sort of normal syndication but as the test used was small; I cannot predict well whether the data obtained was normal or not, so the test of Kruskal-Wallis was used. This test showed that there was sufficient data that there has been a change/difference (not identical) in development rate between your most major nutritional present in garden soil and the most minimal nutrient present in soil. Expansion rate here was discussing the number of leaves determined [11, 12, 13]. Eggshell was made up greater than 95% calcium mineral carbonate while the rest 5% can be calcium phosphate, magnesium carbonate, soluble and insoluble proteins .
This indirectly would provide vegetation the calcium they want. Constant availability of calcium would help in pushing the cell division of plant continually. Plus, with the occurrence of calcium mineral, the aeration and drainage of soil will improve. Good garden soil aeration would help the procedure of providing essential nutrition to the origins run properly . For RHA, most of it includes Silica and simply a little of other nutrient that needed by vegetation available such as potassium . This will be mentioned in analysis part.
In order to minimize the amount of problems and boost the consistency in taking the readings and calculating, large samples were used for every fertilizer. Just for the trial part, I used two vegetation for both eggshell's fertilizer and RHA's fertilizer. While for the true experiment I've used three vegetation for both fertilizers and also two crops were used to do something as the control for the experiment. As being explained previously, for control I only used organic and natural soil mix for its dirt, no additional chemicals added. Furthermore, this experiment has been conducted for nearly three months to observe the continuity of the results. All plants were planted first for a month using the explants. The eggshell was smashed into powdered form to be able to help it degraded faster. Amounts of leaves was chose to be the way of measuring growth rate because it was the most recognizable outcome for youthful plants and the easiest way readings to be studied.
Throughout the experiment, no anomalous readings were obtained. However, there is reduction in range of leaves produced for eggshell's fertilizer. Besides that, the leaves flipped yellowish, a few of them had yellow spots on the surface while the premature leaves started to fall-off. This took place during last week of observation (week 12). Having lack of uptake of other nutrients might be the reason why. I assumed that eggshells on week 12 have fully decomposed into calcium; this eventually would make the calcium mineral to accumulate in root part. This accumulation might cause less or avoid the uptake of other nutrition that needed for plant growth such as Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Potassium and Zinc. Unnecessary Calcium caused Iron insufficiency, because besides functions as an Oxygen carrier, Iron involved with reaction of cell division and growth. However, it can't be denied there is high probability that the multiple deficiencies happened at exactly the same time, so leads to the symptoms on plant life. The same principle applied when there is certainly other nutritional present excessively; as you nutrient present excessively this will lead to other nutrition less uptake [15, 16].
Nevertheless, the growth of plant relies on both inner and exterior conditions since its seed germination. Vital external factors like drinking water, sunlight, temps and air could give huge effect on the place itself not solely depend on the nutrition uptake from the root . Then, to help make the outcomes reliable and no anomalous instances happen, I have placed the subjects (crops) all in the same location, that could be looked at as shady and not being reaching by sunlight directly; as to minimise the speed of transpiration within the vegetation.
Even though RHA is made up only a little essential nutrition required by vegetable (80. 26% Silica) , it can provided the main system a good drainage and aeration like the eggshell's fertilizer did but even better. This is because RHA is highly porous, compact and has fine structure in comparison to eggshell. So, high probability all nutrition within the RHA could be sent to the main effectively despite of small ratio of required nutrients present.
The results were considered to be valid and reliable because the experiment was carried out for such an extended period of time and being handled with low degree of mistakes and large sample size.
Limitations and Modifications
While performing this test, some limitations made an appearance. Regarding crushing the eggshell, the result could be better if the food cpu was used despite of using the standard grinder. The external factors such as heat, dampness and light were scarcely to be handled throughout this experiment. The combination of each fertilizer with the organic land also could be biased; this is regarding the difference in size of contaminants of the eggshell and the RHA. RHA is finer in its structure and partially soluble when diluted with water.
Contradict; the eggshell was not so fine even in the powdered form or even insoluble in normal water. Which means this gave rises in different dilution of fertilizers in the container. The eggshell might be more concentrated in its concoction compared with RHA. A few of RHA could be flow away along with normal water left the root with lesser nutritional availability. Size of pot used (10 in. ) should vary to each fertilizer used. It is because both fertilizers do not has same solubility level corresponding of the same weight used. For RHA, the rose container used should be bigger than the eggshell's.
Lastly, I assumed that even though my results obtained via this test could vary to other's experiment out there, I really believe the reason why of different kinds of seed used would be subject. Different kinds would act in another way, as there are uncontrollable genes flows within the kinds itself.
This investigation might have been upgraded by using other method. The eggshell may be degraded further if the inner coating is removed and continue with using the acid answer to it after the heat process is carried out. However the acid must be choosing effectively so the soil would not be too acidic thus influence the growth down the road. It's the best to use Sulphuric Acid as it could decrease the pH better than other acids would. Different chemicals and tests methods will remove different levels of nutrient from land. Therefore, different evaluation methods could be utilized for different land properties.
The eggshell as fertilizer is more effective in comparison to RHA and normal used organic soil blend. The mean of numbers of leaves of eggshell's always outweighed the mean numbers of leaves of RHA's. The various growth rates resulted in both fertilizers used because both of eggshell and RHA having different compositions of nutrients within (fertilizers) itself. Herb with the eggshell in its earth has greater variety of leaves thus shown that its expansion rate was significantly higher weighed against the crops with RHA. The Chi-square circulation provided critical value, 7. 38 which was smaller than test statistic exercised by Kruskal-Wallis's test, test statistic, H = 15. 03. Since H (15. 03 > 7. 38), so it falls in the rejection region of null hypothesis, H0. Hence, null hypothesis is turned down and the experimental hypothesis is accepted.
Evaluation of sources
A range of options have been selected to use in my analysis. For source 1, it is a site that held and managed by the professor from office of chemistry in Frostburg Condition College or university, Frederick A. Senese which I regarded as convincing explanations has been voiced out.
Next, resources 2, 5 and 9 are methodical publications that specifically suitable for the subjects I have used in my experiment; 2- eggshell, 5 and 9- rice husk ash. These portions should have a very high level of clinical credibility as these were written by experts at their leading edge of their particular field, for case the writer for source 2 was days gone by leader of world's poultry sciences connection, Hunton P. Plus, I assumed those have undergone intense reviews before being shared so all of these journals are trustable.
Sources 3, 4, 6, 10- 13 and 15-16 are free-content web-based information which I believed is continually improved and kept up to date, that leading to upward development of quality, thus the info could be assumed as reliable. Source 7, is a well-known free online news source that offering the latest research media on variety of issues hence the info presented on the website should be right. Same would go to source 8, it is also provided the newest information but more specific on environmental topics from Japan. It reveals information from most reputable sources including administration, educational and professional so no biased viewpoints can look. Options 14 and 17 are released books hence the explanations it includes must be factual and reliable, unless the information given turn out to be out of date.
All in every, I do not hesitate to state that the sources I have described are reliable and trustable.
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