Gene Mutations: Questions and Answers

Archaebacteria and eubacteria are both prokaryotic cells, both are sole celled microorganisms, and are relatively little compare to that of eukaryotic cells. Both Archaebacteria and eubacteria separate by an activity known as binary fission, and move through the use of flagella Archaebacteria and Eukaryotic Skin cells both own a plasma membrane. Archaebacteria have genes, and metabolic pathways which are similar to eukaryotes.

Are all mutations dangerous? Explain.

No, all mutations are not dangerous. While there are numerous mutations which go undetected or neural, without mutations multicellular microorganisms couldn't exist today. Also some mutations provide beneficial results such as anabolic resistance in bacteria which allows them to be less vunerable to chemical agents. These kinds of studies on mutations business lead to the developments in treatments.

What will it mean when a gene is reported to be "highly conserved"? What forms of genes show up in this category?

A gene which is looked upon to be highly conserved is a gene through the history of advancement which is rather, if not completely similar to a gene sequence in another kinds. The conserved gene is so highly specialised that it has gone through unnecessary evolutionary pressure for the gene to stay unchanged.

The protozoan Didinium feeds on other microorganisms by engulfing them. Why are bacteria unable to prey on other cells in this manner?

The protozoan "Didinium" feeds through a process known as endocytosis. Endocytosis is the power of a cell to soak up substances and other organisms, by engulfing the object. Bacteria cannot perform endocytosis, in the way that an pet animal cell can, because that capacity is bound by its cell wall. Only cells that have a plasma membrane rather than cell wall membrane can undergo endocytosis.

Your next-door neighbor has donated $100 in support of cancer research and is horrified to discover that his money is being spent on studying brewer's yeast. How could you put his mind relaxed?

Brewer's candida, or "Saccharomyces cerevisiae", is one of the model microorganisms found in various DNA tests. It's used as a model organism in many genetics and cell biology labs, because they're easily harvested, easily contained in a lab, and create a high yield of offspring. Model organisms allows for the study on individual diseases, i. e. tumor, minus the unethical dependence on people experimentation.

Bonus question: (2 things) Nucleotide sequence comparisons are fundamental to our current conception of the family tree of life, to comprehend how chloroplasts and mitochondria were attained and their succeeding evolution, to the value and magnitude of horizontal gene copy, and to the notion that by focusing on a few model organisms we can gain valid insights into all of biology. This problem was created to introduce common methods and assumptions that underlie the artwork of nucleotide collection comparison.

A phylogenetic tree represents the annals of divergence of varieties from common ancestors. Structure of such trees and shrubs from DNA or protein sequences can really only be achieved with computers; the data sets are great and the algorithms are simple. Nevertheless, a few of the fundamental principles of tree building can be illustrated with this simple example. Consider the first 30 proteins of the hemoglobin Ї string for the five types listed below

Human V L S P A D K T N V K A A W G K V G A H A G E Y G A E A L E

Frog L L S A D D K K H I K A I M P A I A A H G D K F G G E A L Y

Chicken V L S A A D K N N V K G I F T K I A G H A E E Y G A E T L E

Whale V L S P T D K S N V K A T W A K I G N H G A E Y G A E A L E

Fish S L S D K D K A A V R A L W S K I G K S A D A I G N D A L S

Which pair of types is most closely related? What's the assumption that underlies your decision?

Based on the chart it seems as if humans and whales are the two kinds which will be the most strongly related. The assumption is the fact that, between the whale and humans, there were only 8 dissimilarities in the protein provided in the desk, far less than any of the other organisms.

The information in the table may be used to arrange the varieties on the phylogenetic tree below. The branching order is set using a simple kind of cluster research. Both most similar kinds are located on the adjacent branches at the top left. The varieties with fewest average differences relative to this match are placed on another branch. In the next step, these kinds are combined and the common differences from the rest of the species are determined and used to fill in the next branch and so forth. Use this solution to arrange the types on the tree in the physique below

Human Whale Hen Frog Fish

Is the branching order that you driven above the same order that you'll get by simply using the amount of differences in accordance with human to put the other varieties on the tree? Why is the technique of cluster examination superior?

I found the cluster method and the relative differences methods offered provided different purchases in planning the species. I would expect the cluster method would be more accurate result, since it takes the common genetic difference of most kinds in the chart, rather than just checking two different species.

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