How Does The Concentration Affect Osmosis?

Diffusion is the web passive motion of particles atoms, ions or substances from a region in which they are really in higher attentiveness to parts of lower awareness. Diffusion is important process occurring in human body example of one of many types of diffusion which appear in the body is gas exchange at the alveoli- air from air to bloodstream, carbon dioxide from bloodstream to air. [5]

Osmosis is the diffusion of liquid by using a semipermeable membrane from a solution with a low solute concentration to a solution with a higher solute focus until there is an equal concentration of smooth on both attributes of the membrane. [1]

Diffusion and osmosis is an example of passive transport. Passive travel is a movement of compound across a permeable membrane without added energy. The difference between osmosis and diffusion is that; diffusion can take place with out a membrane whereas osmosis only takes place across a semi permeable membrane. Osmosis only will involve movement of normal water across a permeable membrane. Osmosis is a lot slower than the rate of diffusion. Osmosis is a passive transport of drinking water whereas diffusion is a unaggressive travel of solutes. [7, 8]

A permeable membrane is a membrane which allows all types of molecules or ions to permeate through it; it enables everything proceed through it such as sodium. [6] Whereas a semi permeable membrane is a membrane that allows let only solvents, like water, to feed it. It is a membrane that will only allow certain substances through it. In general oxygen, food and water are allowed to enter; waste products are allowed to exit and damaging substances are retained out. It generally does not let large soluble pass through it. [2, 3]

Osmosis is the primary way drinking water is carried in and out of skin cells in our body. The regions of high awareness of water substances are called hypotonic. Hypotonic solution has a low awareness of dissolved chemicals. Areas of low awareness of water substances are called hypertonic. Hypertonic solution has a higher amount of dissolved chemicals. During osmosis, drinking water molecules by natural means travel from hypotonic areas to hypertonic areas. Water molecules travel from hypotonic areas to hypertonic areas because this technique equalizes the concentrations of drinking water and dissolved chemicals. [4]

This is example of osmosis in body, Salts and mineral deposits from normal water are transferred in the body through osmosis. Water flows through the plasma membrane of cells and anticipated to osmosis awareness of water, glucose and salt is taken care of inside the body. [9]

Active move is when dissolved molecules move across a cell membrane from a lesser to a higher concentration. In dynamic transport, particles move against the focus gradient - and for that reason require an suggestions of energy from the cell. The power used to soak up the molecules comes from respiration.

In humans, dynamic transport takes place during the digestive function of food in the tiny intestine. Carbohydrates are divided into simple sugars such as blood sugar. The blood sugar is utilized by active transport into the villi, to be handed down into the blood vessels and taken around the body. [10]

http://www. bbc. co. uk/bang/images/446x251/osmosis. jpg [11]


http://www. phschool. com/science/biology_place/biocoach/images/biomembrane1/Tonic2. gif



Potato chip: This can help me justify if osmosis is happening. I've used potato chip to help me justify if osmosis as it is a semi-permeable cell. The length, width and mass of all the potato chip used in the experiment are to be placed same.

Scalpel and a chopping tile: The scalpel will be utilized to trim all the potato chip to the chosen length and width. The chopping tile will used to place the potato chip while being to reduce damages to the work area i. e. cutting of work place while chopping the chip.

Electronic level: Electronic range will be used in my test to measure the mass of potato chip through the experiment. I have made a decision to use Electronic level rather than springtime balance to weigh the potato chip because using digital level means that my results are accurate as electric scale has calculating units ranging from 'grams- kilograms'. My results may also be precise as the electronic scale measures the weight of something to 2 decimal places.

The results extracted from a planting season balance will not be exact; the results will also not be appropriate as parallax mistake could take place while reading the data. The usage of balance is necessary in the test because I'll need to analyze mass of the potato 'before and after' through the test, so that I could calculate reliable percentage difference in mass.

Distilled normal water: This will be used to maintain the potato chip. I have decided to use distilled drinking water rather than normal water because it can be an isotonic solution and using distilled drinking water to preserve the potato chip means that the potato chip will not be affected by external factors; therefore making my results reliable.

Ruler: Ruler will be utilized in my test to accurately gauge the width and the length of the potato chip; to make sure they are all same size. I've made a decision to use a ruler marked in models of cm and mm so that my results will be specific as the potato chip clipping will be even and of the same size.

Filter paper: This will likely be used in my own experiment to blot the potato chip once it has been taken out of the sucrose solution; I am going to blot the potato chip in order to absorb extra drinking water from the potato so that there is as little normal water substances in the potato; repeating this can help me gauge the true value of the mass of the potato and make my effect more accurate.

Labels: To make sure that the test run efficiently, each agar plate that has been utilised in the test will be labelled. Labels will be utilized in my test so the potato chip in a solution can be easily determined. Labels can help me find the attentiveness of a particular solution. Labelling the agar plates will prevent dilemma, and reduce anomalous results.

Sucrose solution: I'll desire a sufficient variety of concentrations. This is so which i can certainly show anomalies and styles in my results to be able to draw a precise final result. Sucrose solution will be utilized in my test as this will help me to figure out if osmosis is happening. The purpose of my research is to see how the speed of osmosis is influenced by the attention of the sucrose solution therefore i will be using different attention of sucrose solution.

Measuring cylinder: Cylinder will be used in my test to measure the amount of sucrose solution. I've decided to use a measuring cylinder rather than beaker to gauge the amount of sucrose solution since it is made to +0. 5ml or -0. 5ml while a beaker is made to +3ml or -3ml. Using measuring cylinder will mean that there will be a high level of accuracy in my results. Using cylinder will mean the quantity of focus on each is accurate.

Agar Plate (6): Agar plate will be utilized in my experiment to carry the sucrose solution and the potato chips. The agar plates will be labelled to avoid confusion and this will reduce chances of anomalous results. For e. g. If I were to include a sucrose solution with a amount of 0. 1 to a agar dish but believed I needed chosen a sucrose solution with a focus of 0. 2, the results produced would contain mistake and would be anomalous.

I also have decided to use an agar dish. Using a test tube could possibly result in poker chips leaning on the sides and lessening the chip's surface area. Therefore, I have made a decision to an agar plate rather than test tube to carry out the experiment

Stop watch: Stopwatch will be used in my test to record the quantity of time the potato chip has been positioned in the solution. Stopwatch watch will be used so the timings of the experiment are accurately adopted, and that the potato is removed from solution at the correct time. In this manner, the test remains fair.

Health and Safeness:

Healthy and safety strategies are extremely important while carrying out the experiment

Scribe: Scribes will be used in the test to cut the potato chips, but might lead to fatal harm if treated carelessly. Scribes are dangerous; these are sharp and may cause wounds. You ought not walk in the laboratory holding a scribe. Scribe must not be placed at border of the desk which could cause personal injury if it comes off.

Wear goggles- It is important to wear goggles to protect our sight from any spills that could happen. In case there is sucrose solution engaging in your eyes, immediately flush eyes with drinking water.

It is also suggested to wear latex gloves because they are thin, see through and will not create difficulty for you while doing the experiment. Latex gloves will create a barrier between the substances and your hand. Putting on gloves protects our hands form the discomfort that could be induced by sucrose solution.

Wearing goggles and latex gloves will mean that there is maximum skin safeguard and minimises likelihood of irritation from chemicals coming in contact with the skin. People with sensitive skin are more likely to be affected if the answer gets spilled on the skin.

Hands should also be washed after doing the experiment.

Carry out the experiment standing- It is important to handle the experiment status, so that there is less chance of injury happening for you. If something happens, i. e. Sucrose solution spills, you can easily move from the area.

Positioning of equipment- Acids and Alkalis should be stored ready where they are not likely to land or spill. It shouldn't be kept at edge of the stand. Equipment such as measuring cylinder which is manufactured out of glass could show up and break easily if positioned inappropriately, i. e. edge of the stand. Broken pieces of glasses are hazard, it might easily cut someone. Additionally it is important to put the beaker which provides the amount of solution consequently so that we now have no spills; spills in the task area is an hazard, people could easily slide.

Work area: Working area must be retained clear, there must be no baggage laying on the floor that could cause visitors to trip over, this can be a hazard. Hazards in workplace could lead to injury. It is also important not to run around while carrying equipment, equipment such as scribe could cause injury to yourself.


Independent changing:

The independent variable in the test is the concentration of sucrose solution. I will be changing the concentration of the sucrose method for observe how it influences osmosis.

Dependent changing:

The dependent adjustable in the test is the mass of the potato. I will be measuring the mass of the potato before inserting it in the perfect solution is and once they have been placed in the answer.

The mass of the potato once they have been positioned in a remedy is a continuing variable.

Controlled adjustable:

The controlled variable in the test are

Experimental room: The heat affects the rate of a effect because the higher the temperature, the higher the heat. You will see an increased rate of osmosis in the cell membrane because contaminants in the solution will be moving quickly credited to heat range change. Water molecules will gain kinetic energy which increase osmosis. Higher heat range may possibly also cause the cell membrane to denature, this inflatable water molecules in the perfect solution is may possibly also evaporate. The temps of which the test is carried out must remain continuous in order for an experiment to be a fair test and my leads to be reliable. I'd conduct the test in the same room to get this to factor constant.

Type of cell: Permeability of potatoes may vary, if I use poker chips with different degree of permeability, the amount of solution going through will never be the same. I will be using potatoes with same degree of permeability.

Surface section of the chips: It is important to keep the surface area of every potato the same in the test. Poker chips with higher surface will mean that osmosis occurs faster, because more of the potato is available for reaction.

Time: To be able to determine how concentration influences osmosis. The amount of time that your potato will be still left in a remedy should stay constant. Using a potato chip in a solution for longer time means that it will have a greater chance to carry out osmosis than the other potato chips. This will mean that my test will become an unfair test; I am using a stopwatch to keep this factor constant.

Volume of concentration used: The quantity of concentration used in the experiment must remain constant to make my experiment a fair test. If this factor wasn't maintained constant then the amount of normal water molecules on the agar dish would be different and you will be varying the speed of osmosis because you will see higher probability of water molecule diffusing through the permeable membrane. I will be keeping this factor continuous by utilizing a measuring cylinder that includes a measuring precision of +0. 5ml or -0. 5ml.


I also believe when the chip is put in a dilute attention of sucrose solution, it will gain mass and become rigid. The attention of sucrose solution will have significantly more water than the inside of the chip. This will likely result in water moving from the perfect solution is to the chip. The chip will gain mass as normal water goes in to the cell. The chip can be turgid and strong.

I also believe there will be a stage in the experiment where the potato will neither gain nor lose any mass. This will likely take place because the poker chips will maintain an isotonic solution. The awareness inside and outside of the potato would be the same so no osmosis will be developing.

I imagine as the focus of the sucrose solution raises, the mass of the potato will decrease. During osmosis substances move from an area of ruthless to an area of low pressure. Therefore, whenever a chip is placed in a concentrated sucrose solution, it'll lose mass because the chip has a higher concentration of drinking water than the sucrose solution. The sucrose solution where the potato is held will have will be concentrated and will not need much water. Water will re-locate from the chip and the cell becomes flaccid.

Sugar molecules in the sucrose solution are too large to undergo a semi-permeable membrane so normal water moves out during osmosis. The permeable membrane only allows solvent through it, the solute (sugars molecules) can't go through it.

Preliminary test

I also have carried out an initial test to see if there were any changes to be produced in the ultimate experiment.

Preliminary method:

I accumulated all the equipment needed for test.

I made sure i labelled the six agar plates i found in my experiment to lessen confusion and minimise a chance of anomalous results.

I measured the space of the potato; the width of each potato chip was same. The width of each potato chip to be utilized in the test was same. I assessed the length of each potato chip using a ruler to ensure it was similar.

Using poker chips with same length will bring about all chips having mass but I measured mass of every chip somewhat than assuming the mass to be the same. In case the mass have been different due to inaccurate measuring of length and width, I would change the length and width and gauge the mass again.

Then, I measured the mass of the potato using an electric range. I also blotted the chip before measuring it to get an accurate value. I also waited 5 mere seconds after inserting it on the level to ensure that the body exhibited on the size had not been fluctuating.

I poured m3 of a specific attentiveness of the sucrose solution in to the agar plate using a measuring cylinder. Then, I put the chip in a labelled agar plate with the right focus for 5 mins.

I then needed out the chip from the solution and blotted the chip with tissue paper to soak up any excess solution off the potato. I measured the mass of the potato after it was positioned in the perfect solution is to figure out if it gained or lost mass.

I carried out three repeats for every concentration to make certain that my results were reliable

Then, I repeated step 3-7 for all the concentrations to be utilized in the test.

Graph Research:

During the experiment, I located a potato chip on different concentrations of sucrose solution.

We can see that as the amount increases the mass lessens.

During 0. 5.

Mass is bought this cud be credited to inaccurate measuring.

From the graphs it is clear that there surely is coherent negative correlation the independent adjustable and the dependant variable. As the focus increases, the ratio difference diminishes. As the amount increases from 0 - 100 the ratio change in massdecreases from.

My email address details are reliable and appropriate; it shows a solid negative relationship.

All the concentrations have small range pubs, indicating that the email address details are exact and can be relied upon.

However, results: 0. 1m, 0. 9m, and 1. 0m all have large range bars suggesting they are really unreliable.

Ultimately, there is a connection between your awareness and the percentage change in mass


I used an electric scale to gauge the mass of the potato through the test. The results distributed by the level were specific but while calculating the chip during the experiment, there is a zero mistake. The scale proved mass of 0. 04g when there is nothing placed onto it. The size was also free from normal water or any solution that could have induced the scale showing mass. The zero problem present on the level could have been the cause for anomalous results in the preliminary test.

I also placed the chip in the perfect solution is for five minutes; I believe enough time isn't long enough for osmosis to take place.

Changes created from preliminary

In my primary, I used five different attentiveness of sucrose solution, to find out if concentration influences osmosis. I have now decided to use nine different attention of sucrose solution, which range from 0% to 100%. I've done this to ensure that you will see a range of results that i can pull a finish from.

I also placed the chip in the answer for 5 minutes; I believe the time isn't long enough for osmosis to take place. I believe perhaps a longer period would permit osmosis to take more effect. I am putting the chip in the answer for 10 mins in my final experiment to raise the osmotic activity.

Final test method:

Final experiment results:

*All data in the email address details are given correctly to two decimal places.

*The difference in mass is exercised by the increase/cut down in mass, divided by the original mass and then, X 100.

For example,

The difference in mass for the awareness 0% is worked out by

(1. 81-1. 71) X 100

1. 75

This is 3. 43%.

Graph evaluation:

The graph depicts a poor relationship. As the sucrose amount increases (the self-employed variable), the change in mass of the seed tissues (the dependant changing) decreases.


I would select the chip from the distilled drinking water by tweezers somewhat than hand. I'll tweezers to pick it because this means that the potato chip doesn't speak to skin, and no wetness will be utilized by the chip form the potato. Water from skin could impact the mass of the potato. However, using tweezers to pick the potato, I could be destroying the chips cell that may have an effect on the results.

I also used an electronic scale to gauge the mass of the potato chip during the experiment; the use of electronic level to measure the potato chip meant that my results obtained are exact as it gave numbers to two decimal places. I think my final result were also accurate because using an electronic scale supposed that no parallax problem occurred. If I were to employ a spring balance to measure the chip of the potato, parallax error could occur. However, using an electric scale might well have resulted in systematic and zero error which could change my results significantly.

I have also made sure that while calculating the chip, there was no zero error occurring. Zero error might have been the possible reason for anomalous ends up with the preliminary test. I have ensured that the level displayed 0. 00, to be able to get a precise value of the chip and make my results reliable.

It was also very difficult in my experiment to make certain that each chip got a same surface. The chips may have different surface area. Although, we too service while measuring the space and width to be sure the difference of surface between potato chips was minimal. I would also prefer to use a ruler with even smaller increments, such as tenth of millimetres to be sure that the space and width of the chip is very appropriate.

Despite the actual fact the chips may have different surface; other controlled factors were retained the same throughout the experiment so my test can be viewed as reliable. I also carried the experiment three times for each focus, doing this increases the reliability of the experiment. Doing three repeats for each and every concentration also enhances consistency of the results.

I also used concentration of solution which range from 0%-100%, I believe I've used sufficient amount of concentrations to draw a conclusion. If I were to replicate the experiment, I'd change the focus in the experiment by 5% somewhat than 10%, this will allow me to work with a variety of results.

There could also be a human mistake in my experiment. For instance, I could have blotted one of the potato chips with filter newspaper more than the other; this would have resulted in a lower mass of the chip while weighing it. Human being error could have been the reason for anomalous results. Other known reasons for anomalous results could have been due to

Inaccurate measurements of the sucrose solution

Systematic/ zero error while weighing the chip


I also waited 5 moments after I place the chip on the scale to measure it, so the figure was settled. I also used an agar dish to ensure that potato chips were not coming in contact with the attributes.

The range of concentrations I used in the test are sufficient enough to

Even though, I decided to go with 10 mins prior to 5 mins for my real experiment, I'd still prefer to change enough time, I'd make enough time to 30 mins. This time around would allow the process of osmosis that occurs totally. Therefore, allowing me to gather clear data which shows the true difference created by each concentration.

I would also consider by using a precise, accurate and better weighing scale to measure the mass of the potato. Even though, the range was exact and precise. The weighing scale was constantly fluctuating which didn't let me get a precise reading. I would like to employ a size which doesn't fluctuate and has higher level of perfection- it ought to be able to evaluate to 3dp. This would also make my test and the results obtained reliable.


Error bars

The error bars have quite a small range. This means that my experiment is reliable. The error bars are not far apart; therefore that the results have been noted similarly. This also explains to us that the handled variables such as, 'type of cell' have been taken care of throughout the experiment.

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