Human Skeleton and Muscles: Anatomy and Physiology



In a brief account explain skeletal and bone features which aid them to carry out their roles, Be sure you link framework and function for both.

Adult skeletons consist of 206 individual bone fragments established in two divisions - axial and appendicular skeleton. The past runs along the body's midline and includes skull, rib and vertebral column areas. The latter consists of bones in higher limbs like the radius and ulna, lower limbs and pelvic girdle regions.

Skeletal key functions
  • Support - Structural framework for your body, supporting soft tissues and providing connection things for skeletal muscle tendons.
  • Protection of internal organs from harm. E. g. rib cage helps to protect lungs and heart and soul.
  • Movement - Most skeletal muscles put on bone fragments and, on contraction, draw to produce movements. E. g. thigh muscles put on the femur and take onto it during hip/knee joint movement.
  • Mineral storage space/release - Bone cells stores minerals like calcium mineral and phosphorus which help bone strength. Nutrients are released on demand into blood vessels to maintain mineral balances/travel to other body parts.
  • Blood cell production - Bones like pelvic and rib bones (adults) contain red bone marrow producing red blood vessels cells.
  • Triglyceride storage - Yellowish marrow contains adipose cells storing triglyceride chemical type energy reserve.
Bones are living organs manufactured from cells, health proteins fibres and mineral deposits. They include
  • Diaphysis/Epiphyses - Bone shaft/End
  • Mataphyses - Region between above structures. In growing bone it contains a growth dish/layer of hyaline cartilage which allows the bone to lengthen.
  • Articular cartilage - Thin part of hyaline cartilage covering area of the epiphyses where in fact the bone forms a joint with another bone. Reduces friction/absorbs distress at readily moveable bones.
  • Periosteum - Difficult connective structure sheath. Protects bone, helps in fracture repair, nourishes bone tissue, serves as an connection point for ligaments and tendons. Associated blood circulation surrounds bone surface when articular cartilage not present. The internal osteogenic layer, comprising cells, allows bone to develop thick.
  • Medullary cavity - Hollow space within diaphysis made up of oily bone marrow and blood vessels. Minimizes weight of the bone by reducing dense bone material where not needed. Tubular design of provides maximum power with minimum amount weight.


Joint Type

Movement range


Ball and socket - Ball-like surface of bone fits into cup-like despair of another bone.

Permits movements around 3 axes - flexion-extension, adduction-abduction and rotation. E. g. The spherical ball mind of the femur rests in to the cup like acetabulum (outlet) of the pelvis.


Hinge - convex structure of bone will fit into concave structure of another.

Produces angular available and close activity. One bone remains fixed while other moves on its axis. Permit only flexion and extension.



Relatively toned bone surface goes back-and-forth and from side-to-side. Limited in range but can be combined with rotation.


Condyloid - convex, oval formed projection of 1 bone suits into oval-shaped unhappiness of another bone.

Permits movement across two axes - flexion/expansion and abduction/adduction plus limited circumduction.


Saddle - articular surface of bone is saddle designed, while surface of other bone fits into saddle (such as a rider).

Same as condyloid joint.

Cervical vertebrae (atlas-axis)

Pivot - round/pointed surface of bone articulates with a wedding ring produced by another bone & ligament.

Allows movements around its own longitudinal axis. Allows for turning action without sideway displacement or bending. E. g. CV allows for the heads flexibility while maintaining stability of brain/neck.


Plane - Surface is chiseled or slightly curved.

Back-and-forth, side-to-side motions. Some rotation.


Fibrous (Fused) - Lack synovial cavity.

Composed of your thin part of dense muscle. Allows little/no movement. Sutures occur between skull bones. E. g. coronal suture between parietal and frontal bones. Irregular interlocking sides give them added power/decrease chance of fracture.



No joint cavity. Bone fragments held set up by cartilage. Limited movement. Only happen in body midline. E. g. pubic synthesis between anterior areas of hip bones.

Part 1 - Explain what joint and muscle motions are involved in running and exactly how are they involved.

The legs progress using the quadriceps at the front of the thigh. Quadriceps bend (flex) the hip joint and straighten (increase) and stabilise the knee. As the body moves onward the hamstrings are recruited to straighten (stretch) the hip and bend (flex) the leg. They also help bend the knee behind a runner. At exactly the same time the muscles of the low leg (inner and outer leg) stretch and flex each ankle joint/foot during landing and remove e. g. plantar and dorsi flexion of the ankle joint. Impact is also ingested by these muscles. The gluteal muscles not only help to prolong the hip but also stabilize the trunk, keeping a runner upright. Hip flexors and extenders work with quads and hamstrings to move legs forwards and back again as well as stabilizing the hip joint which plays a part in good working form.

The hands and shoulders are another key driving a vehicle force for jogging power. The biceps and triceps, which when jogging are held in a partially flexed position at the elbow joint because of the triceps flexing, are constantly moving at the make joint in a backwards-forwards path when working. This movements is also strengthened, and organised, by recruitment of the Trapezius muscles.

Part 2 - Explain what joint and muscle moves get excited about working at a pc within an office and how are they involved.

When working at your computer the next joint and muscle activities, starting from the tip of the top, are

The cervical vertebrae pivot joint permits our head to flip side-to-side/up and down which assists us when looking for information on a computer screens. Elbow joint parts, when relaxing or hovering over the table, are in a regular 90 level flexed state with the bicep muscles being flexed to bring the elbow joint to this position. The wrist bones, when working on a keyboard, are moving still left, right or more and down tightly accompanied by the finger and thumb joint parts that happen to be flexing, extending and hovering to enable typing. Midline bones, such as vertebrae, hips, pelvis etc are in a natural position to be able to alleviate back pain associated with resting for long periods of time. Well developed main muscles in the belly, back (latissimus dorsi) and shoulders help with keeping us sitting down upright in a neutral vertebral position by continuously contracting. When resting our sides may often be pressed marginally out of range/forward, the joint is flexed. Gluteus muscles are in a continuous status of flexion when a person is sitting as will be the knee bones (if one is seated with the bottoms of their ft on the floor).

Skeletal muscles have complicated buildings that allow them to move, what are these structures and how do they allow muscles to handle their functions.

Skeletal muscle includes numerous elongated muscle fibre skin cells arranged in fasciculi bundles. These bundles are segregated by endomysium connective cells with each of these bounded by a more robust perimysium sheath. Bloodstream vessels transport nutrients/oxygen in and move metabolic waste products away. A huge selection of muscle fibres are enclosed within the epimysium connective cells envelope and lengthen the muscles full period.

Fibres consist of cell membrane, myofibril, sarcoplasm (including organelles such as mitochondria) and myofilaments actin and myosin.

Myosin is bounded by 6 actin (each comprising two heads covered around each other). On the myosin binding site on the actin (the twist) the myosin mind attaches and both filaments overlap creating cross-bridges. When overlapping the myosin mind - made up of ATPase enzyme - produces ATP, running muscle contraction.

Muscle contraction sets off when an impulse from the central stressed system is sent to a muscle with a electric motor neuron nerve. When it reaches the fibre the Sliding Filament Mechanism - a series of chemical events leading to the above mentioned actin/myosin to overlap referred to above - is activated. Myosin pulls on actin shortening the sarcomere. This sign is synchronized across all fibres so all myofibrils agreement simultaneously.

Muscular functions are to create body motions such as locomotion e. g. operating; stabilize body positions; store and move chemicals around your body (air to the muscle and metabolic waste materials from it); generate heating through contraction - vital for maintaining body temperature.

Antagonistic muscle pairs work in opposition with one moving a joint in a single path and another moving it back. E. g. the bicep contracts to flex the arm as the tricep muscle releases.

Three types of voluntary muscle fibre: Type 1 - Slow-moving twitch fibres using aerobic respiration for suffered muscular contractions, such as preserving posture. Type 2a - Fast Oxidative Fibres: mix of type 1 and 2b fibres using aerobic and anaerobic respiration to produce fast, strong muscle contractions - found in weight training. Type 2b - Fast Twitch Glycolictic Fibres using anaerobic respiration for brief, fast bursts of electricity.

'Movement requires muscle and everything muscles have antagonistic pairs'. Employing this as the name write a short bank account of how muscle contraction and antagonism is essential for the co-ordinated activity of the organism. 200 words

Muscles are mounted on bone fragments by tendons so that when a muscle agreements (shortens) it pulls on the bone and, if part of your joint, said bone goes.

Muscles can only just pull, they can't push. So, if a joint was only handled by one muscle, it could result in a problem as the bone would move around in one way and stay there.

Voluntary antagonistic muscles work in opposition so that whenever one group contracts the other relaxes. It's impossible to fully promote the contraction of two antagonistic muscles at exactly the same time. Muscles allow us to stand and be seated by contracting/liberating constantly to stabilise the skeleton and walk and run by contracting/launching to move lower body limbs.

Antagonistic pairs normally consist of a flexor and extensor. E. g. to flex the elbow, the bicep flexor muscle works across three joint parts while the tricep (extensor) muscle is generally concerned with extension of the elbow joint.

To move our legs we have to use the lower limbs and it is here that antagonistic muscles such as the quadriceps and hamstring interact to move the upper leg limbs while the tibalis anterior works in opposition to the calf muscle to move the lower calf.


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