Infections: Types, Causes and Prevention

Health care pros share the responsibility of avoiding the pass on of contamination between themselves and clients and between clients.

Clients at health facilities tend to be more vulnerable than all of those other people

Sources of infecting microorganisms can be people or environmental things, such as medical or nursing equipment that has been contaminated

What can be an infection?

An illness is the expansion of any parasitic organism within our body. Quite simply a person with contamination has another organism growing within him, drawing its nourishment from the individual.

Infective diseases that are commonly communicable from individual to individual are called infectious or contagious

Normal Flora- microorganisms found on or in the body that do not cause any infection

What is a microorganism?

Microorganisms are varieties of animal or plant life too small to be observed without aid from a microscope.

One of three incidents occur when a microorganism invade the human body

Microorganism are demolished by your body's immune defence mechanisms

Microorganisms stay in the body and cause diseases

Microorganisms cause contamination or an infectious disease

Causes of Infection

An infection can be brought on by
  • Viruses
  • Bacteria
  • Fungi
  • Parasites


A microorganism smaller than bacteria

Cannot expand or reproduce apart from a full time income cell.

Invades living skin cells and uses their chemical substance machinery to keep itself alive and to replicate itself.

It may reproduce with fidelity or with mistakes (mutations)-this ability to mutate is responsible for the power of some trojans to change just a little in each afflicted person, making treatment more difficult.

How can infections be cured?

Many viruses cannot be treated with drugs; you merely have to wait until your immune system gets strong enough to battle the virus. Infections like the flu can not be treated by antibiotics

Can you be immune to them?

Yes, if your body can protect itself against a computer virus, you are immune system to it. You also can create immunity once you suffered with a virus infections.

You can also have a vaccine (like the polio vaccine) which can protect you against finding and catching the polio computer virus. Each vaccine only shields you against that one virus


A simple living thing that is made up of single cells and that contain the capacity to replicate swiftly, this microorganism can are present either as independent (free-living) organisms or as parasites (dependent after other organism for life).

Bacteria can be 100 times bigger than trojans. They work in different ways from infections, but like infections, they can make you ill.

Some bacteria can infect wide open wounds, others can get within your body by being consumed or breathed in as in the case of microbe infections such as bronchitis or strep throat

Some types of bacteria be capable of develop highly immune round or oval framework, called spores, when they are exposed to adverse conditions such as insufficient nutrition and /or water

Spores are protected to disinfectants and high or low temperatures, so they may be difficult to eliminate. They are tolerant to sunlight and even freezing conditions so many stay viable in adverse environments for many years until the right conditions happen plus they multiply again

How can they be treated?

Bacteria can be killed by antibiotics; some bacterias have grown to be immuned to antibiotics, which make these bacterias difficult to kill.

Can you be immune system to them?

Yes, if the body can protect itself against bacteria, you are immune. You can have a vaccine (like the tetanus vaccine) which can protect you against finding that bacteria. Each vaccine only shields you against those particular bacterias.


Tiny microorganisms that belong to the world of plant life but contain no chlorophyll.

Fungi can be found in the land, air and water plus they multiply by producing various varieties of spores

There are three types of fungal infections: superficial, which affect the skin, mucous membranes, scalp and fingernails or toenails; intermediate, which influences subcutaneous tissue; and systemic, which infect profound cells and organs

Fungi like moist conditions and are most likely associate with epidermis infections and don't get inside your body.

An exemplory case of common fungus is the yeast

Fungi are also used for the introduction of antibiotics.

Another example of fungi's infection is athlete's foot

How can they be healed? Anti fungal drugs, powders or products get rid of fungal infections

Can you be immune system to them? You will find no vaccines for fungal attacks but there are ways you can prevent them. For example, by making sure you dried between your feet to avoid athlete's foot, as fungi like damp, warm conditions


An organism that lives in or takes its food from another organism. A parasite can not live separately. An examples of a common parasites is the lice

Parasites are usually categorised as: endoparasites (usually living inside your body of the coordinator), and ectoparasites usually live on the surface of the host.

Occasionally this is of "parasitic disease" is restricted to diseases due to endoparasites.

Humans can get parasites from polluted food or water, bug bites or intimate contact.

Parasites normally enter into the body through the skin or oral cavity.

Close connection with pets can lead to parasite infestation as dogs and cats are host to many parasites.

Other risks that may lead visitors to get parasites are walking barefoot, insufficient disposal of faeces insufficient hygiene, close connection with someone who holds specific parasites, eating undercooked or unique foods.

Common parasites of the individual body

(1) The hookworm latches on the wall surfaces of the bowel with its pointed teeth where it feeds on blood vessels.

(2) The tapeworm is the longest parasite. A mature adult can lay down a million eggs per day.

(3) Tapeworm eggs inserted in the bowel. (4)

The roundworm can turn into 20 ins (50 cm) long and lay 200, 000 eggs per day.

(5) Pinworms migrate outside the colon at night time to place their eggs throughout the anus. This triggers the nightly itching of several unsuspecting patients.

How can they be healed? There will vary treatments depending after the type of parasite. For example, lice can be cured with special shampoos or by combing the locks with a special comb

Can you be immune system to them? No, there are no vaccines for parasites. You will discover ways you can reduce your chances of catching parasites. You can avoid connection with individuals who have head lice, or avoid posting equipment such as hairbrushes

Passing and avoiding infections

The process of the spread of infections can be conceived as a string of happenings. Each event is a web link in the chain and must appear sequentially for an infection to build up.

For the chain of events to continue, the following elements must be there

Reservoir, pathogenic organisms, portal of exit from the reservoir, mode of transmission, portal of access to the new host, and susceptible new host

Importantly, infection reduction and control is directed towards breaking the links n the chain of infection

Chain of infection

Chain of infection/ Reservoir


The reservoirs of pathogenic microorganism are individual, pet or inanimate options. A reservoir is a location in which a pathogen may survive but may or may well not multiply.

Human tank: variety of microorganism (normal flora) reside on the surface of the skin area or within body cavities, liquids and discharges, when this normal flora is transferred from other normal host to residence to another site in the same coordinator an auto-infection may occur

Cross infection may occur when microorganisms form one person are transferred to someone else.

A person incubating a disease is another way to obtain infection.

During the incubation period the organisms multiply and can be transmitted and infect others before the host or anyone else knows the condition exists.

Health care specialists therefore should treat every customer as if they were a potential sources of infection

Animal reservoir: animals, birds and bugs (vectors) may also be reservoirs for infectious microorganisms example: malaria.

Inanimate tank : land, seawater, food, normal water and dairy are additional reservoirs for microorganism.

Chain of infection / Website of exit

Portal of exit from the reservoir

if microorganisms are to type in another sponsor and cause disease, they need to first find a site of exit, a new site in which to reside in.

Chain of an infection / Website of exit

Portal of leave from the reservoir
When the human body is the reservoir, microorganisms can exit through a variety of sites such as

Skin and mucous membranes

Gastrointestinal system: saliva, expectorated sputum, faeces, vomitus, bile

Urinary tract

Respiratory area: sneezing, hacking and coughing, discussing or even breathing.

Reproductive area : semen, genital discharge

Blood: blood is normally sterile but, whenever a client has bloodstream borne infectious disease such as hepatitis B or C or Helps, it becomes a reservoir for the causative pathogens. Any break in the skin that allows bloodstream to escape, and menstrual blood from the vagina, are portals of leave for blood-borne pathogens.

Chain of infections/ Methods of transmission

Microorganisms move from a tank to a fresh host in a variety of ways. Disease may be transmitted via
  • Airborne (inhalation)
  • Contact (coming in contact with)
  • Indirect Contact
  • Vector

* Some microorganisms may be propagate by more than one route

Airborne transmission

it might occur via either airborne droplet or dust particles particle.

Tiny pathogens can be carried on airborne allergens such as dust particles, water, and breathing droplets and, if inhaled by way of a susceptible variety, cause contamination.

Examples of health issues disperse by this via are measles, rubella, influenza, pneumonia, meningitis, tuberculosis and polio.

Some of the diseases can be pass on by other means

Droplets of moisture content which contain organism do not have to be inhaled to spread infection.

They contaminate all areas on which they fall season, so transmission can occur via indirect contact

How to avoid passing on this type of disease

Avoiding close connection with an infected person is the best way to avoid airborne infections

Covering the mouth and nasal area when coughing or sneezing can reduce the pass on of infection

Avoid close contact with people in crowed or enclosed areas such as shopping malls

Wearing a mask may help reduce get spread around of infections for short exposures.

Contact transmission

This is the most important route of transmission in healthcare setting.

Microorganisms can be moved directly from one individual to another by physical contact between an contaminated person and a new web host, or throughout the use of contaminated equipment.

The hands can be the means of copy if, after contact with an infectious client, they aren't washing sufficiently before attending another client.

Effective hand washing is the sole most significant way to avoid the spread of microbe infections.

Direct contact

How to prevent passing on this type of infections

Good hands washing

Avoid direct contact with an afflicted person

Use barriers such as gloves for connection with infected epidermis and body fluids

Condoms prevent the get spread around of sexually sent diseases

Indirect contact

Contact with items that are contaminated such as doorknobs, handrails, tables, countertops, taps, mugs, cutlery, computer keyboards, telephones, pens and children's toys.

Infections that can be passed in this manner include: Hen pox, colds, conjunctivitis.

How to prevent passing on this type of an infection

Frequent hand cleaning, especially before coming in contact with the face, sight, mouth, or nasal with your hands

Using gloves when handling things which may be infected

Frequent disinfecting rather than showing personal items (cups, cutlery, combs, or bath towels)

Transmission by ingestion

Microorganism can enter in the gastrointestinal system in many ways, including via infected food or drinking water or contaminated eating or drinking alcohol utensils

Example of an illness transferred in this way is the cholera.


Vector borne transmission (via mosquitoes, flies, rats and other pets or animals) as a health concern is not as significant in Australia and New Zealand.

The most frequent example of a disease spread in this manner is the malaria.

Chain of an infection/ Portals of entry

Microorganisms can type in your body through the same routes they use for exiting

Inhalation in to the respiratory tract


Inoculation through your skin or mucous membrane

Chain of infections/ Prone host


the degree of resistance a person has to pathogens. Whether a person acquires an infection depends upon their susceptibility to the infectious agent.

A susceptible variety is the last hyperlink in the chain of infection

Susceptibility can be reduced by lifestyle methods that boost level of resistance, such as healthy nourishment, adequate exercise, slumber and sleeping and effective health practices among other.

Body Flora

Microbes live on our bodies

Normal flora

Flora are different in various areas

Balance can be disturbed. E coli is generally found in the intestines, however, there are types of E. Coli that can cause diarrhea and can even lead to kidney inability.

E. Coli contamination is common during summertime and complications are likely to occur on older and children society.

Reduce problems by

  • Attention to health
  • Lifestyle
  • Natural Body Defenses
  • Tears
  • Mucous membranes
  • Intact skin
  • Stomach acid, saliva enzymes
  • Hair in nose area, eyelashes
  • White blood cells
  • Antibodies
  • Inflammation
  • Temperature
  • Immunity
  • Ability to struggle off disease

Pathogenic microbe gets into body

Body responds by producing antibodies


Weak immune system system

Points to Consider for more aged Adults

There is a reduction in the function of immune system and and slowed reaction to treatment in elderly adults.

There is a designated physical change which may increased quick access of infection into the body such as atrophic skin, decreased gastric acid, decreased coughing reflex, etc. . .

Slower mobile response scheduled to decreased proteins reserves and serum albumin resulting to slow curing of wounds.

Changes in mental position and decreased efficient ability resulting to limited ability to utilize preventive health procedures to improve level of resistance to infection.


Protection from pathogens

Vaccines are vulnerable antigens

Make body produce antibodies

Prevent youth diseases


How vaccines work

A. Vaccines contain antigens (weakened or dead viruses, bacterias, and fungi that cause disease and an infection). When introduced in to the body, the antigens activate the disease fighting capability response by instructing B cells to produce antibodies, with assistance from T-cells.

B. The antibodies are produced to deal with the weakened or inactive trojans in the vaccine.

C. The antibodies practice on the weakened trojans, preparing the immune system to ruin real and better viruses in the future.

D. When new antigens enter into your body, white blood skin cells called macrophages engulf them, process the information contained in the antigens, and send it to the T-cells so an immune system response can be mobilized.

Bacterial Infections

Culture and sensitivity

Antibiotic use and misuse

Antibiotic resistance

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE)

MRSA: can be an infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus that has become resistant to antibiotics that are used to treat one common infection.

Most people that are contaminated with MRSA are those who stay long in a healthcare facility, people who lives in a resthome, people who are having dialysis.

VRE: Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus. This entero coccus acquire a special DNA called plasmid. These VRE can invade the bloodstream or spread locally. Once in the bloodstream, it may cause meningitis, pneumonia orendocarditis

Other Bacterial Infections

Strep A
  • Flesh-eating
  • high mortality
  • Pseudomonas:
  • Found in water
E. coli
  • Normal in intestines; if found in food it is likely from poor food prep
  • Other Bacterial Infections
  • Salmonella:
  • Food poisoning
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Clostridium difficile:
  • Normal in colon, severe diarrhea in seniors on antibiotics
  • Infection control and prevention

The basic principles employed in stopping the spread of infection will be the same in every situations, whether or not clients are looked after the city, in aged cared facilities, in day treatment centers or in hospitals.

Standard precautions, are the basic recommended work practices to be carried out in the procedure and care of most clients no matter identification or presumed infectious status

Infection control and reduction / Standard precautions

Standard precautions are the first method of disease control. Additional safety measures form the second tier and are used in situations where clients are known or are suspected as being attacked with pathogens that may not be contained by the use of standard precautions

Standard precautions mean placing a hurdle between yourself and somebody else's: Body liquids, secretions and excretions ( except perspiration), non intact epidermis and mucous membranes

Body liquids include
  • Blood
  • Urine
  • Semen
  • Breast milk
  • Nasal secretions
  • Faeces
  • Vomitus
  • Vaginal secretions
  • Human tissue
  • Wound exudates/pus
  • Sweat
  • Cerebrospinal, pleural, pericardial, synovial, peritoneal, and amniotic fluids
Standard precautions relate with
  • Effective hands hygiene
  • Use of personal protective equipment such as gloves, gowns, masks or eyeball safeguard when appropriate
  • Safe systems for the handling of bloodstream and all other body fluids
  • The safe handling of no-intact skin area and mucous membranes

Hand hygiene

Hand hygiene is the most crucial way to avoid the get spread around of infection and includes cleansing of hands or the use of alcohol palm rubs

Micro-organisms: can be found from body essential fluids or objects in the home. They adhere to the skin on the hands and then are passed on to other folks. Epidermis is you body's first type of defence against infections. If your skin layer is destroyed or destroyed, your threat of infection boosts.

When to clean your hands with soap and drinking water

When visibly dirty

When soiled with bloodstream and other body fluids

After using the toilet

If alcohol-based hand rub is not available

When alcohol-based side rub is indicated

In all other clinical situations, use alcohol-based side rub if hands aren't visibly soiled

Soap and alcohol-based hands rub should not be used together

When you begin to work

When you surface finish work

Before and once you've contact with each consumer

After connection with any body essential fluids such as blood vessels or urine

'After connection with mucous membranes, broken skin or skin area rashes or infections

After touching polluted items such as soiled sheets

After taking away gloves

After using the bathroom or changing incontinence pads

Before setting up food, eating or feeding

After coming in contact with animals

Whenever your hands look dirty

Between consumers visits

Food handling- between different food types

Before and after providing medications

After making use of creams

Handling chemicals

The uses of gloves do not replace the need for washing your hands

Hand hygiene

In addition to cleaning, care and attention of the hands entails

Covering any busted or infected areas of the skin with a waterproof dressing

Wearing disposable gloves to safeguard larger skin lesions

Keeping fingernails clean and brief and not putting on artificial nails

Keeping your skin free from cracks. If consistent immersion in normal water results in epidermis dryness, a good quality palm cream should be used

Hand hygiene procedure

Hand washing steps

Remove viewed or jewellery and spin your sleeves up to your elbow

Wet the hands and wrists with tepid to warm water ( scorching water can dried up your skin layer)

Place a tiny amount of soap on your hands

Rub the hands together to form lather. Be sure you clean under your fingernails, around and in the middle of your fingers and your fingertips and thumbs

Wash for 10-15 seconds

Rinse your hands well using plenty of warm working water ( taking away all the soap reduces discomfort from washing the hands often)

Pat your hands dry out with a towel, or newspaper towels. Do not rub as its can damage your skin. Free of moisture your hands thoroughly

If you can, use the towel to turn off the tap, so you do not contaminate your clean hands

Hand cleanliness procedure

Tips for using alcohol based hand rubs

Check hands for visible soil or bloodstream/ body fluids. It is alright to use a hand rub if there is no visible soiling.

Apply a small amount of alcoholic beverages gel( about the size of a ten cent part ) to the hand of one side and rub hands together

Cover all surfaces of hands and fingers including areas around and under fingernails

Continue massaging hands alongside one another until alcohol dries ( about 15-25 seconds)

Make sure hands are complete dry out prior to gaining gloves or encouraging a consumer

You need to clean the hands with cleaning soap and normal water when it fells sticky on the hands

Personal defensive equipment

In accordance with standard safeguards, personal defensive equipment (PPE) is employed with all clients when you can find potential to are exposed to body chemicals or airborne microorganisms

PPE equipment identifies gloves, aprons/dresses, masks and protecting eyewear or face shields

Disposable gloves

Purpose: to avoid the copy of body liquids, mud and microorganisms from person to person by the right use of latex/clear plastic disposable unpowered gloves

When to work with disposable gloves

Gloves are worn for expected contact with blood vessels, secretions, mucous membranes, non intact epidermis and damp body substances for all those patients

Gloves must be modified between client technique and after each client

Contaminated gloves should always be removed immediately after the task is completed and so that the polluted outside floors are enveloped within the inside surfaces

Gloves should not be reused

Gloves that are not intact or discoloured should not be use

Gloves can be used when touching polluted items such as bed linens and continence products

Gloves should be removed before touching items such as doorknobs, light switches, telephones, medication trolley.

You also needs to use gloves if you are cleaning, especially commodes, bathtub chair and urinals

You should use a fresh pair of gloves if the gloves become soiled

Important to wear gloves when you are handling continence products and sanitary napkins, which should be positioned in a dual plastic waterproof tote, covered and then devote the rubbish bin

PPE/ Dresses and Aprons

These will be required when procedures will probably generate splashing of body fluids

Or when contact between the resident's body / clothing/linen items and medical professional might not exactly be able to be avoided

Gowns and aprons have to be throw-away and used once only

Gowns and aprons need to be modified between clients

Gowns and aprons will not be stored in clients' room

Aprons/Dresses must be worn when participating in the following method

Cleaning soiled/wet linen, clothes

Emptying foundation pans, bowels, urinals, and vomit

Emptying / cleaning suctioning equipment, blood, I. V. equipment

PPE/Face safety devices

Depending on the function of transmission, healthcare workers may wear a mask, goggles or face shield

Face cover up are worn to avoid the pass on of microorganisms from the respiratory system of a customer to a medical worker or from a medical employee to a client

Disposable masks are worn and discarded soon after use and hands should be washed and dried after mask is removed

When a mask is utilized it must

Be treated only by the tapes or loops at either end

Cover the nasal and oral cavity completely

Not be permitted to loaf around the neck

Be changed when it becomes moist, as dampness allows microorganism s to feed the mask

Protection devices

Protective eyewear/ face shields: ( face safety device) to be use if there is a risk of splash of blood vessels or other body fluid

Hats: To safeguard hair when you can find splashed or sprayed with bloodstream or body liquids, or even to prevent mane contaminating food or a consumer with a available wound. Hats could also be used when the individual you are helping has lice.

Infection control disposal

It is important to get rid of certain things, such as body essential fluids, wound dressings, suction or drainage, I. V remedy equipment, moist or soiled incontinence pads, or contaminated items in the correct manner

How to dispose body fluids

Always use gloves when handling body fluids

Urine and faeces should be flushed down the toilet

Blood may also be flushed down the toilet

How to dispose body essential fluids

Any items polluted with body fluids, such as, bed linens, should be rinsed in the laundry kitchen sink with cool water before being cleaned with hot water in the washing machine. The item should be cleaned individually from other cleansing or matching with the organisation P&P.

Catheters, colostomy luggage and other medical waste materials should be put in a plastic material bag, covered and then place it in the rubbish bin, or dealt with regarding to organisations P&P.

Dressing and other items which may be infected should be put in a plastic bag, covered and then place it in the rubbish bin, or handled relating to organisations P&P.

Infection control disposal

Sharp instruments signify the major cause of accidents affecting potential contact with blood-borne disease. Sharps should not be passed yourself between workers

How to dispose sharps waste

Sharps waste material includes needles, cannulas, scalpel, etc

Items should be disposed of into a puncture resistant box without recapping.

How to dispose sharps waste

A lightweight sharps container will be taken up to bedside/location of the intervention

Needles should not be: recapped, destroyed or bent by hand, or taken off disposable syringe after use

How to handle soiled clothing and gowns: These items should be cured in the same way as polluted linen

Wash hands before gaining gloves

Treat all soiled clothing and dresses as though is polluted.

Wear gloves when handling these items

Carry the things away from your body to the laundry.

If an item becomes soiled if you are out locally, or when you do not have usage of a laundry, you should said in a waterproof, cheap bag. If possible, put this carrier inside another tote such that it has a double layer protection

How to handle contaminated linen

Treat all bed linens as though it is polluted. Wash the hands and put on gloves.

If the linen is damp or soiled, placed on an apron as well.

When taking the linen from the bed, collapse it on itself. This means that the contaminated floors are inside bundle

Rinse the soiled linen based on the organisations P&P, then devote the cleansing machine

Carry soiled linen in a container or bucket to avoid dripping

Other soiled items should be cared for in the same way.

Remove and dispose off of the gloves and clean your hands

Infection control: First aid

Sometimes emergencies happen when promoting a consumer and the support person may be exposed to body fluids or contaminated surfaces.

Spills of blood or body fluids

Put on gloves and other PPE

Isolate and contains the spill

Remove solid subject using a particles pan and paper towel

Small spots of blood or small spillls of body substance can be easily wiped up with throw-away towels (procedure may vary relating to organization's P&P) Important, absorb the substance USUALLY DO NOT RUB

Clean the area with soap and normal water or an alcoholic beverages rub (process may vary matching to organization's P&P)

Discard contaminated materials into a white plastic bag

Remove gloves and dispose them before cleansing hands

If support person is damaged by way of a needle or other razor-sharp item or get blood vessels or other potentially infectious materials on the eye, nose, mouth area, or broken skin (body fluid splashes) the following steps are essential

Immediately rinse the open area with a whole load of water

Clean any wound with cleaning soap and water or a epidermis disinfectant

Report this immediately

Complete and car accident or incident report

Seek appropriate analysis and follow-up matching with organization's P&P.


Immediately rinse the region with working water

Report immediately to your supervisor

Refer to organisation's P&P.


Wash the hands and placed on gloves.

Wipe as a lot of the spillage as possible using wc paper or towel.

Dispose of the newspaper or towel either down the bathroom or put them into a cheap bag. Two times bagging is recommended.

Clean the area with cleaning soap and drinking water or disinfectant, relative to your organization's regulations and method.

Remove your gloves and put them in the plastic tote before disposing off them in the rubbish bin.

Infection Control: Reporting

The risk in acquiring Infection:

The risk if you (support worker) have contamination. Going to help with an infection is a risk by moving on the problem to other staff and people you support.

The risk if the client you are assisting has an illness. An infection will lead to changes in condition of the individual which is a risk to his/ her health.

The risk to the organization. Special regulations and techniques such such as a medical center or eldercare service will maintain place to control the get spread around of the infection.

What is the Reporting Technique?

You as a support employee: Call your supervisor and report how you are feeling. There's also policies and techniques that needs to be followed when "calling in ill" which can be described the facility's insurance policies and procedure or the Office of Labour.

The Customer: Statement any changes in the conditions of the person you are supporting, which maybe verbal or written are accountable to your supervisor, given during handover or in a team getting together with. Follow the regulations and procedures of your organization.

The Company: Understand that if the risk of infection has been reported earlier, the control is much more likely to be managed well.

Take note that when there is an outbreak of infection in the center, it's the responsibility of the infection control official (ICO) or the director to report the outbreak to the Ministry of Health for proper management.

It is also the duty of the ICO to inform the staff consumer and site visitors about the infection as well as the safety measures.

In some facilities, a Nosocomial Contamination Data Collection form is completed to monitor the occurrence of the problem.

Examples of Reportable Attacks common in Eldercare Service:

1. URINARY SYSTEM An infection: The citizen has at least 3 of the signs and symptoms:

  • Fever (38 certifications celsius)
  • Increased burning feeling or pain on urination, frequency or urgency
  • Flank or suprapubic pain or tenderness
  • Change in the character of urine
  • Worsening of mental or practical status.

The Risk of UTI: Urinary Tract Infection is very common in elderly scheduled to aging where there are changes in the anatomy and physiology of these urinary tract. Risk of having this type of infection may lead to complications, disease may ascend to other organs including the bladder, kidney or other adjacent organs and it could result to further deterioration of health.

2. Influenza. What things to observe:

  • Fever
  • Complaint of body malaise
  • Sudden change in habit such as loss of interest of interest in his/ her daily routine
  • Signs of distress or worsening of mental or functional status
  • Loss of hunger.

The risk of Influenza: Influenza is a viral disease that may be disperse easily. An elderly who is fed up with flu should be monitored closely. Everybody knows that elderies have poor coping device when it comes to illness plus they may pass away form problem if not been able properly. Issues such as pneumonia is dangerous to older people.

3. Gastrointestinal Illness. What to observe:

  • Loose bowel movement
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Increase in temperature
  • Abdominal cramping
  • Dehydration for a longer period of time
  • Weight damage for a longer period of time
  • Mucus or blood vessels in the feces.

Risk of Gastrointestinal Disease: The elderly can dehydrate fast because they have lowered thirst reflex. Nausea and vomiting as well as diarrhea leads, dangerously to dehydration and it can result in death to the elderly if not been able early.

4. Wound An infection. What to notice:

  • Change in heat range, BP and pulse(swift)
  • Swelling about the area
  • Redness about the area
  • Painful to touch
  • Presence of pus

Risk of Wound disease: Wound an infection is too difficult to take care of especially to diabetic clients and it could lead to complication also to the scope of amputation of the afflicted extremity. Untreated wound infection can lead to an infection to the bloodstream affecting other organs. Septic surprise is a serious illness which may have resulted to unattended wound infections.

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