Investigation of Food Content

Judith L. Gasalatan

Aim: To research the meals content of different food examples.

Results:

Food Sample

Fats

Starch

Protein

Vitamin C

Whole meals bread

There is fats present and became cloudy

There is starch present that the colour became dark brown

No proteins is present

No vitamin C is present

White bread

There is fat present and became cloudy

There is starch present because the colour changed into dark brown

No necessary protein is present

No Vitamin C is present

Butter

There is unwanted fat present

No starch is present

No health proteins is present

No Vitamin C is present

Milk

Fat is present

No starch is present

No protein is present

No Vitamin C is present

Apple juice

No fats is present

No starch is present

No proteins is present

Vitamin C is present

Orange juice

There is excessive fat present since it became cloudy

No starch is present

No health proteins is present

Vitamin C is present

Conclusion of the investigation:

During our test, we have identified the different articles of different examples that people used. We have compiled different results which offered us the knowledge to recognize which examples contain different types of food categories. When we analyzed for your meat bakery, we added 2 ml of drinking water to the meals sample then added four drops of liquor after in the test tube. We shook the test pipe and saved the change in colour. The color became cloudy which indicates that there surely is fat within the whole food bread. Whenever we examined to see when there is starch present, we added 1 ml of water to the sample then added 1-2 drops of iodine solution and shake the test pipe. We have found that there is starch present because the color changed into dark brown. Moreover, when analyzed for necessary protein after adding 1 ml of drinking water and 1-2 drops of biuret reagent in the test tube, the colour revealed no changes which identifies that there is no protein within the sample. Then, when we tested if there is Supplement C present after adding 1ml of distilled water and 1-2 drops of DCPIP solution, again, it exhibited no changes as well which gave us an outcome that there is no Supplement C within whole meal loaf of bread.

When we examined for the white breads, it exhibited the same results regarding the whole bread as well. It contains fats because it became cloudy when we take notice of the results possesses starch in it since it became colour darkish.

For the third sample which is the butter, when we tested for fat by adding two ml of distilled drinking water then added four drops of alcoholic beverages in the test pipe, we discovered that it includes fats because it turns into cloudy after shaking it off. When screening for starch by adding 1 ml of distilled drinking water to the test and added 1-2 drops iodine solution, it offered us no changes meaning it doesn't have starch. When we test drive it for necessary protein, we added 1 ml of distilled water and 1-2 drops of biuret reagent, it offered us the same result whenever we test for starch. The identical process we performed for proteins and Vitamin C no changes occurred through the test.

Next is the dairy which the only food group present is fatty acids. Whenever we shook the test pipe after adding the 2 2 ml of water and four drops of alcohol, the colour changed into cloudy form even though screening for the other food groupings which are the starch, protein and Vitamin supplements C, no changes were occurring.

When we analyzed for the content of apple juice, we added 2 distilled of normal water to the meals sample the added 4 drops of alcohol. After that, we shook the test pipe and observed the effect which offered us no changes. When screening for protein, we only added 1 ml distilled water and added 1-2 drops of iodine solution. After shaking it, there was no colour pink or purple happened. However, whenever we test it for Vitamin supplements C with the addition of the 1 ml of distilled drinking water and 2 drops of DCPIP solution, the color changed into red which indicates that Supplement C exists.

Lastly, we examined the meals group content of orange juice. To test when there is fat present in the food test, we added 2 ml of distilled drinking water and four drops of alcoholic beverages then tremble it off. After that, it became cloudy which means that fat exists in the food sample. Examining the starch with the addition of 1 ml of water and one or two 2 drops of iodine solution, it provided us no changes in the colour because if there is, it would change into dark brown. Then screening for the proteins we added 1 ml of distilled drinking water and 1-2 drops of biuret reagent, still, no changes were happening because it didn't change into colour pink or purple. Last but not least, when we test it for Vitamin C, we added the 1 ml of distilled normal water in to the food sample and few drops of DCPIP solution and the colour changed into red. Furthermore, the greater drops we put in it, a lot more the colour changed into red and which means that there surely is more Supplement C present in the food sample.

  • Judith L. Gasalatan

Task 2- Digestive Systems

The digestive tract is the group of organs that work together to convert the meals to energy and nutrition in order to give food to our entire body and helps perform its functions. Digestive function is the breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules that'll be absorbed in the body.

Food when consumed begins to absorb into the mouth area but different kinds of food are digested in different elements of the digestive tract. Protein while grinding in the mouth area is generally digested in the abdominal and fat is mainly digested in the tiny intestine.

The process of carbohydrates digestion begins in the mouth with the release of amylase enzyme. One's teeth are being used to crush, grind and chew up the meals into smaller pieces that is blend with the saliva and also with the aid of the tongue. In the oral cavity, salivary gland react to the idea and life of food by processing a smooth which contains mucous and the enzymes amylase and maltase. In the mouth area, amylase enzymes commence to break aside of the bonds having the carbohydrate polysaccharides sugar together. As nibbling and partly digested food grows to the upper abdominal through the oesophagus, the low stomach begins to complete with hydrochloric acid solution. This acid eliminates harmful microorganisms which may be present from the food. The oesophagus has strap of small muscle at the cheapest part to be able to stop the meals from getting it back to the mouth area. Additional carbohydrate digestion remains from the mouth area in the top stomach. Health proteins is mainly digested in the abdomen. Protein digesting enzymes break apart the bonds possessing the amino acids of proteins. Intestinal protein partially intestinal sugars and undigested excess fat travel into the small intestine for the digestive process to be completed. In the small intestine, amylase completes the digestion of carbohydrates. Extra fat are digested in to the small intestine by the lipase enzymes. Digested proteins, carbohydrates and extra fat are then consumed through the villi of the small intestine into the bloodstream. Bloodstream take sugars and amino acids to the liver by the portal vein. The pancreas similar to the small intestine excretes enzyme within an alkaline juice to digest necessary protein, carbohydrates and fatty acids. It produces hormones as well which manage the level of blood glucose. From the small intestine, the macerated food is received by the liver organ where produces bile for the gallbladder. The gallbladder stock and dispose of the bile that really helps to break down the fats. The meals that is undigested from the tiny intestine is then proceeding into the large intestine. In there, the blood vessels which provides the large intestine discharges drinking water extracted from the waste materials that is undigested. The undigested food is then taken off the system through the anus.

Different types of nutrients are very important because each has different goal inside our body. We need protein because it helps in growth and cells repair inside our body. It also makes essential enzymes and hormones and offer energy when carbohydrates is not available. Based on the DTI (Eating Reference Intakes) published by the USDA, the amount of calories that we should consume that comes from health proteins is 10%-35%. Protein is found typically in pets' options such as meat, fish poultry and many more. If we consume these varieties of foods, it all provides the essential amino acids that we need.

Carbohydrates are the most needed nutrient that people should have since it is the foundation of energy and every one of the tissues and cells inside our body can use glucose to be able to acquire energy. It is also needed in central stressed system, the brain, the kidneys and muscles in order for it to function properly. Carbohydrates are found in starchy foods such as dairy, yoghurt and fruits. These glucose pass through the intestinal tract which helps to move the misuse out of our body and also help digest the food. They also regulate the number of sugars circulating in the bloodstream in order for the skin cells to obtain the energy that they need. They may control blood circulation pressure and help lower the degrees of cholesterol (results benefits of nutritional fibre).

Even though fats took bad reputation about triggering gain weight, there are some unwanted fat that is important for survival. Your body uses the fat from the food we eat to supply the energy for our life-functions. Cholesterol, triglycerides and other fatty acids are the extra fat that can't make independently in the torso, insulate us, store energy and protect the vital organs. They help proteins do their job and become messengers.

They also start chemical type reactions that help immune system function, reproduction, control expansion, and other aspects of basic metabolism. The cycle of earning and storing fat reaches the center of how all the pets and most importantly, how humans manage their energy. An imbalance can result in diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Moreover, the excess fat also help the body supply certain nutrients as well. The "fat soluble" vitamins within a, D, E and K are stored in fatty tissue and in the liver too.

References

http://www. bbc. co. uk/schools/gcsebitesize/design/foodtech/compositionpropertiesrev1. shtml

http://www. teachpe. com/anatomy/human_digestive_system. php

http://www. bbc. co. uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_aqa_pre_2011/enzymes/enzymes_and_digestion4. shtml

  • Judith L. Gasalatan

Task 3- Chemical Digestion

Proteins make up our body mass at about 15%. They will be the major amount of 'sound' substances inside our body. Each proteins has its capacity under the control of its gene. Its styles are of key importance and they are controlled by the series of amino acids that make them up.

Proteins are by natural means appearing polypeptides because they contribute to mechanical structure of humans and also family pets such as the keratin in mane, fibrous proteins such as collagen in tendons and also the fingernails. They permit the animals to move due to myosin in muscle and also facilitate the travel of smaller substances around the bodies of animals like the haemoglobin.

As everybody knows, the enzymes performs an important role in digestion because they help breakdown large molecules into smaller substances that may be ingested easily. They work best on their optimum pH. Such as, if the belly doesn't produce an adequate amount of hydrochloric acidity, the pepsin, an enzyme, wouldn't work properly. The job of the protease enzymes that's secreted by the stomach, pancreas and the tiny intestine is to absorb the proteins. Protein are long chains of proteins and these protease (enzymes) break them into smaller chains of substances of proteins to create peptides. And then eventually, into distinctive proteins that are small and is then easily consumed in the tiny intestine.

Proteinsamino acids

In the mouth area, amylase from the salivary glands get started carbohydrates digestive function. Salivary amylase breaks starch down into smaller polysaccharides and sugars like maltose. However, just a few starch molecules are completely digested into maltose before they enter the tiny intestine because the acidic pH of the abdominal damages the salivary amylase. The pancreas secreted amylase into the duodenum. In the tiny intestine, bicarbonate ions from pancreatic juice neutralize gastric juice. Amylase persists the break down of starches into maltose. Starch is broken down into monosaccharide, disaccharides and short chains of glucose items called oligosaccharides. Then, the enzymes break down oligosaccharides and disaccharides into monosaccharide which enter into the blood stream. As maltose is still a disaccharides which breaks starch down into two-glucose units, it requires more additional digestive function before it can be soaked up completely. So, the enzyme maltase will break it down into glucose. All end products of carbohydrate digestion such as fructose, sugar and galactose are soaked up as monosaccharides.

In the pictures below revealed the break down of carbohydrate molecules into monosaccharide which is sugars molecules after going through digestive function from the mouth area into small intestine and the whole part of the body.

Starchmaltoseglucose

Fats or lipids are utilized and digested in the small intestine. Foods such as milk products, meats nuts and seeds contain dietary fat. Lipids are referred to as excessive fat like molecule it doesn't have the capability to dissolve in normal water. And this failing to dissolve in water provides difficulty to unwanted fat digestion. Since body fat doesn't dissolve in normal water, it moves through the digestive tract forming large droplets clumped alongside one another. Then, when it gets to in the tiny intestine, it was not digested. Bile helped break the fat into smaller droplets that's made in the liver. The bile consists of salts that functions as an emulsifier of lipids. The bile salts disrupt system. drawing. bitmap and coat it to form finer droplets. Then, it'll have significantly more surface which helps digestive function because the pancreatic lipase (extra fat digesting enzyme) can only function on the exterior part of the excessive fat droplet. The pancreatic lipase reduces the fat that may result in monoglycerides and free fatty acids that are two products of lipids. Then, it'll become easier for the small intestine to regulate these products because there's only little problem being absorbed from the digestive tract.

The mucosal lining of the small intestine is where the absorption occurs and when both products go through it, they now get into the epithelial skin cells. Then, they are simply resynthesized into triglycerides which really is a major form of fat stored by the body. Before it leaves the epithelial cells, they will cause the proper execution of chylomicrons that's made up of lipids and protein. Then, the water soluble from the covering that the glyceride gives will allow it travel beyond your cell.

In the picture shown below is the lipase broken down into fatty acid substances and glycerol substances.

References

http://www. bbc. co. uk/bitesize/ks3/science/organisms_behaviour_health/diet_drugs/revision/5/

http://www. livestrong. com/article/273627-chemical-digestion-of-carbohydrates-proteins-and-fats/

http://www. scientificpsychic. com/fitness/aminoacids. html

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