Nanomedicine The Field Of Nanotechnology Biology Essay

Nanomedicine is a broad field of nanotechnology which involves almost all areas of science like nanoscience, nanoelectronics, nanophysics, nanoengineering and so many more. Generally we can say that it's the practical application or the medical application of different materials at nanoscale to many nanoelectronic devices. These devices can be used in several applications of medical treatments. Current advancements shows that possibly these nano devices provides revolutionary changes in neuro-scientific molecular nanotechnology. The current problem to the use of nanomedicine based devices is the toxicity and the impact of nano debris on both living beings and environment. Nano particles have been designed for treatment of different diseases like cancer tumor, angiogenesis etc. But the situation is the way of delivery of the particles to your body of patient as it's difficult to handle these particles due to extremely small size. Nanotechnology is exhibiting such a rapid advancements that allows the amalgamation of multiple therapeutic, sensing and focusing on agents with a variety of 1-1000 nm. By the oncologic point these agents give new hope for the all:

The applications of nanomedicine methodologies and allergens for the treatment for diseases like tumors are more helpful than the normal medicines and typical medical treatments. Till time more than 20 nanomedical healing methods have been approved by FDA. These new options for nanoengineered materials are likely to give the maximum expected results.

In this context the main concern is the delivery of particle to the specified area. For this purpose different methods are implemented in the lab and are located to be quite reliable. To deliver these debris inside the body seems to be easy but it's not as easy as considered. Being effective, if these particles can damage affected cells then, these can damage the healthy cells as well. Second how big is these contaminants also matter. Moreover the issues regarding the form and response of allergens toward different cells can't be neglected. Al these factors, somehow, have an effect on the efficiency of the nano allergens. So, if these issues are governed, one can easily make nanomedicine more useful than any common technique.

Delivery of nanomedicine into the body:

Nanotechnology is providing the revolutions in almost all areas or the medical research. All the studies in the field of nano remedies are showing in full details that the way the diseases are being stated in the human body and what could be the easiest way of treatment. In addition, it explores the in-depth working of body as well as the development of disease. To make it useful in neuro-scientific medicine, it also requires to the development of new materials and new years of medical nanomaterials. It's true that nanotechnology can be employed to virtually all types of materials and floors that show new properties of nanoscale.

According to the all medical requirements drugs are being designed and sent to the body by handled and specific ways. Two things are very important in neuro-scientific nanomedicine:

Drug design

Drug delivery

1: Medication design:

Designing the medication is undergoing the brand new changes by increased knowledge. The study of natural interact of drugs with the body is greatly increased. Many new decades of drugs are being designed and examined every day. The generation of new drugs gain much importance and specificity because of the complex buildings. The complexity of the structures makes the analysts to work more and investigate as many possible applications of medication by which makes it bioactive molecule. They also modify the framework and process of manufacturing so that it's more useful and produce least by-products. That is usually done by manipulation and engineering of enzymes inside your body that promote natural production of these molecules.

Nano technology and even more specifically nanomedicine are supporting a lot in understanding the mechanism of medication development and its method of action. [12], [16]drugdeliverytwo. jpg

2: Medicine delivery:

Along with the development of active bio molecules a great deal of research is done on the ways and means of medicine delivery. It includes the techniques for exact located area of the medication where it is necessary and the accurate amount of dosage. Nanoscience and nanotechnology assists with understanding both method of working and the positioning of intended medicine delivery site. There will vary vectors which can aim for a specific site like trojans that goal a medicine or gene to a specific type of cell or muscle. It can also define the ways of drug activation when it grows to the mandatory site by the assistance of ultrasounds, light or magnetic fields.

Many current drug delivery systems are remnants of old drug delivery systems that were in nanometer range. Examples for these are liposomes, polymeric micelles, dendrimers and nano crystals.

Different old methods requested drug delivery remain applicable somewhat. These methods are of help in some instances. Some of these methods are:

Oral Delivery

Inhalation

Transdermal

Implantation

Injection

These all methods are traditional methods where drugs are offered in bulk volume but after they enter blood stream they are sent to the website of contamination where they show their response. In these methods medicine is also delivered to the healthy skin cells where it causes destruction. Among these techniques implantation is relatively better in this respect. Implantation is related to the allocation of medication to the disease part. Chances of healthy cell destruction are significantly less than other techniques. Nanomedicine techniques are more advanced than these. [1], [2], [3], [4], [7], [8], [13]

Nanoparticles used for medicine delivery:

Liposomal amphoterins are being used for the medication delivery. These are used for fungal and particle microbe infections. These are most frequently found in patients with depressed white blood vessels cell matter (cancer and chemotherapy patients, HIV-infected patients, elderly patients). Liposomal formulation is recommended due to lowered side results and prolonged medicine exposure. The release of liposomes is slow which improves its efficacy.

Antibiotic filled nano spheres are being used for intercellular attacks. Ampicillin can be an exemplory case of nano spheres which can be used for listeria treatment. It shows remarkable improvement over free medication deliveries and these also reduce bacterial matters in liver organ at least 20 folds. These spheres used for salmonella treatment exclusively required 32 mg per mouse but with nano debris require only 0. 8 mg. There will vary types of nano contaminants that are being used for drug delivery. Some are as follows:

Metal centered nanoparticles

Lipid structured nanoparticles

Polymer structured nanoparticles

Biological nanoparticles

All these have their own features and effectiveness regarding their shape, type and way of software. Metal based nanoparticles are released inside your body after capping with some inert material and then these particles are activated by energising them by using rays either light rays or the ultrasonic rays.

Lipid centered nanoparticles are small substances like amphotericin B, doxorubicin, infections and bacteria as vaccines and nucleic acidity. These are created by mixing lipids mutually in organic and natural solution and solution is evaporated later. Then hydration is done and liposomes are divided to small parts by sonication.

Polymer founded nanoparticles are alkylcyanoacrylates that happen to be thoroughly used as structure adhesive for skin area wounds and operative glues. Polymer based mostly nanoparticles are less poisonous as they degrade by the hydrolysis of ester relationship. This hydrolysis or degradation produces alkyl alcoholic beverages and cyanoacrylic acid solution which are removed during kidney filtration.

Biological nanoparticles are most dependable than another as they are biodegradable and cause less toxicity and environmental results.

(Pathogen a natural Nano particle)

[5], [6], [7], [18]

Use of carbon nanotubes in medicine delivery:

Drug delivery system of nanoparticles which range from 5 to 250nm has capability to improve current traditional therapies as it could overcome the biological barriers. Nano allergens have achieved a great importance in targeted medicine delivery especially regarding cancer. Targeted drug delivery has been facilitated by carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes look appealing in drug delivery to the given areas. It has been approved by research and soon CNT will overcome the problems of delivery, gene solutions and vaccines.

"Our research is still in its earliest levels, but it shows great guarantee, " says Alberto Bianco, at the CNRS Institute in Strasbourg, France. "The nanotubes seem to migrate mainly to the nucleus, so we can imagine them being used to deliver gene constructs. "

Carbon nanotubes are also helpful in custom delivery. It's providing advancements to the treatment of debris to the skin cells. These also assist in killing cancer cells when fired up. These emit IR radiations which eliminate cancer cell.

Image of rolled bedding of hexagons[12], [16], [17]

Use of nanorobotics in nanotechnology:

Nanorobots are the devices which are designed to protect and maintain body. For the moment these are more hypothetical musical instruments than actual practically implemented instruments. These are supposed to assist in a lot of ways like:

Target delivery

Surgery at nanoscale

Brain surgery

Eye surgery

Cancer treatment

Carriers of drugs

Curing pores and skin diseases

Mouthwash packed with nanorobots which is capable of eliminating pathogens

Improvement in immune system by getting rid of unwanted bacteria

Cleaning of arteries and lymph nodes

These can be defined as hypothetical machines but as the study indicates these are going to help mankind very soon in every these areas of medical science. These are supposed to be constructed with the part having sizes of about 1-100nm. The primary point of concern is the way to obtain energy to these machines and work is being done on it. The majority of research is convincing on the actual fact that energy can be given by the cellular digestive function of blood sugar.

http://static. howstuffworks. com/gif/nanorobot-1. gif

[12], [13]

Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamicsand nanoparticles:

Process of absorption, distribution, metabolization and excretion of medicine from the body is named pharmacokinetic. You can say that the analysis of what goes on with the medicine inside is pharmacokinetics. In the contrast the analysis of what drug does with person is pharmacodynamics. Traditionally medicine is designed by exploring small molecules which have both lipophilic and hydrophilic properties assisting the medicine to type in the bloodstream noiseless easily and then diffusing the cells. But this approach is limitized credited many pharmacodynamics results like slow-moving release, less efficiency, less selectivity and high immunogenicity. Usage of nanotechnology can reduce the dangers of both as well as improve the efficacy. Use of nano medicine can prevent the degeneration or the side effect on energetic compounds or healthy cites. [5], [6], [7], [8]

Barriers to the nanoparticle syndication:

Different compartments of bodyact as obstacles to the nanoparticles. These barriers are:

Epithelium

Blood

Immune system

Lymph nodes

lymph vessels

RES

Extravasation

The basic reason of the hurdle is how big is nanoparticles and second of all the condition of particles. These two factors are would have to be considered carefully before presenting the nanoparticle established medicines. [9], [10]

Factors influencing the efficiency of nanomedicine:

Different factors impact the efficiency of nanoparticles. These include the size, shape, chemical character and a great many other factors. But as we could coping at nano size so the size and form of the allergens have a great influence on the efficiency of the medication.

Effect of size on the efficiency of nanomedicine:

Body disease fighting capability has different obstacles for the invaded contaminants which is the most challenging area for the medicine delivery. Clearance of the polymeric nanoparticles and bio-distribution are extremely affected by the size of nanoparticles. For example if the diseased organ needs to be medicated by nanoparticle based mostly medicine then your bio-distribution is improved in the cells by handling he size and unaggressive EPR and ligand functionalization. When the particle size is small the build up of particle inside the structure is increased as well as the diffusion of medicine. If we take the exemplory case of liver and spleen, these parts can be cleared by different techniques like hepatic purification and phagocytic uptake. The blood circulation is better by keeping the particle size 100nm. In kidneys the particles need to be cleared by excretion and the circulation is better by more than half if the is 10 nm.

Other obstacles like hormonal arm and mucosal obstacles are also controlled by managing the motion of particles. These obstacles are overcome by the nanoparticles because of the unique characters and size. This is found to be true especially regarding abnormal neovascularization. Blood vessels are comprised by endothelium which is of three types:

Continuous endothelial morphology in arteries and vessels

Contrast fenestrated endothelium in glands and kidneys(pores around 60nm)

Discontinuous endothelium in liver organ(fenestrae of 50-100nm)

For the treating angiogenesis increased permeability and retention (EPR) allows diffusion and build up of nano particles inside the structure. The size limit of particle is 400nm. If we discuss the physiological parameters like kidney extraction, surface structure, hepatic filtration while others the particle size is an integral factor accountable for the bio-distribution or medicine and medication efficiency. [3], [8] Intake of polystyrene nanoparticles is favoured at a temperatures of 37' to 4'C if the scale is between 50nmand 500nm. Similarly the necessary protein absorption shows a amazing change with the change in proportions. Its variation is as follows:

SIZE

ABSORPTION OF PROTEIN

100nm

Less

100_200nm

Moderate

More than 200nm

More

I

In brief it is observed that the debris with size smaller than 100nm show less absorption of protein that's why these are less resilient to the blood flow and stay in the blood for a long time.

Effect of the form and central of nanoparticle:

Along with size the shape of particle is also a key point of medication delivery and efficiency. Spherical formed particles show lowest resistance and can diffuse easier than any shape. Shape is conditional to the type of materials used for medication as well as kind of nanoparticle being applied. In case there is polymer based mostly nanoparticles shapes will vary and their effectiveness is defined in line with the interaction of accumulation and diffusion site and the material used. In this regard bio-distribution of stealth poly beta-amino ester nanoparticle and poly caprolactone contaminants with the same size provides good notion of condition and core effect. Size of both amounts from 100-200nm however the deposition of both differs. Shape of healing nanoparticles plays a crucial role in extravasation and interstitial transfer. On the one hand, it's been shown that cationic nanoparticles preferentially target tumour endothelial cells and exhibit a higher vascular permeability weighed against their natural or anionic counterparts. On the other hand, neutral nanoparticles diffuse faster and distribute more homogeneously inside the tumour interstitial space than cationic and anionic contaminants, because the last mentioned form aggregates with negatively costed (for example, hyaluronan) or favorably incurred (for example, collagen) matrix molecules. So far as the particle form is concerned, studies have shown that macromolecules with linear, semi-flexible configurations diffuse more proficiently in the interstitial matrix than do comparable measured, rigid spherical debris. [10], [11], [12], [14], [18]

Strategies to improve delivery:

From the dialogue above it could be figured the drug delivery could become more targeted, specified, less poisonous, more biocompatible and safe, fast development of medication by the use of nanotechnological especially nanomedicine methodologies. The strategies of drug delivery are focusing on the enhance drug delivery particularly action on tumour by increasing the efficiency of vascular network. Strategies are to make nanoparticles penetrate faster and easier. [2], [3], [1], [17]

Conclusions:

The invention of nanotechnology is one of the biggest achievements of this century and use of this technology in remedies has revolutionized the complete biomedicine industry. As the field of speedily developing there are a great number of business passions as well. Aside from this, we remain fighting against some diseases like Helps, Malignancy etc. and each year they cost a lot of lives about the world. Again treatment of these diseases are really expensiveand people especially form under-developed countries cannot afford the price tag on treatments. Here, nanomedicine can play an essential role by giving cost effective ways of treatment. But we should also consider some other issues including impact of nanomaterials on our environment. We have plenty of things to do on those issues before making nano-drug widely available to the mass people. [1], [13], [11]

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