Pistachio Cultivation Success Rate Analysis

Comparison of success ratio of three varieties of pistachio under drought and salinity stress proved there is a significant different among pistachio varieties tolerance to drought and salinity condition. In drought stress, Sarakhs and Akbari proved the best and least expensive tolerance respectively (Shape1 A), as the results of salinity pressure on the in contrast and demonstrate that Akbari and Sarakhs proved the cheapest and highest tolerance, respectively (Number1 B).

Effect of drought and salinity in Proline content

Free proline content was examined in leaves of stressed and control pistachio varieties seedlings. Under drought and salinity stress conditions, proline content more than doubled in comparison to control plant life. Under stress conditions, variety of Sarakhs exhibited lower material of proline than that of both another varieties. Proline content increased, significantly in Akbary veriety exposed to drought and salinity stress from 3 and 9 days after start of stress. Surprisingly, proline content of the Badami and Sarakhs types increased alone 9th day after stress. In comparison to controls in the meantime, both drought and salinity stress increased proline content in Badami and Akbari types relative to adjustments (Amount- 2).

Phenol content

The ramifications of salinity and drought stresses on total phenolic content shown in Fig. 3. With the three varieties, the best phenolic content was recorded in Sarakhs and Badami kinds under drought stress in 9th day after start stress. However, in salinity exclusively Sarakhs and Akbari kinds significantly higher at 9 days after treatment (Shape 3).

Changes in H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation of pistachio seedlings

To research the differential oxidative damage brought about salt and drought stresses in three pistachio types, we assessed the details of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation in pistachio leaves (Amount. 4&5).

Under salinity stress conditions, H2O2 material increased from 3rd day after stress and in 9th day Badami and Sarakhs verities have highest amount of H2O2. However, except Sarakhs, the amount of H2O2 was significantly increased from 3rd day after stress in Badami and Akbari varieties under drought stress conditions. In addition, the amount of H2O2 in salt stress was greater than to drought stress (Figure. 4).

Similarly, lipid peroxidation evaluated by MDA content in pistachio types leaves significantly increased 3 days after salt and 6 days after drought stress in all kinds except Badami (Figure 5). The amount of lipid peroxidation was higher in 9th day than to other times in every stress conditions.

Changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes

We assessed the enzymatic activity of SOD, PPO and Kitten in leaves of seedlings of three types expose with salinity and drought stress. As shown in Table 1. salinity and drought stress increased the activity of SOD, PPO and Kitty in leaves of three kinds. More specifically, the SOD activity of Badami in salinity stress and Akbari in drought stress were greater than that of control. All varieties exhibited a similar increasing in SOD activity in drought conditions after start stress. However, in salinity stress Sarakhs variety has highest SOD activity in 3rd day after stress and in Badami and Akbari types the best SOD activity seen in 6th day. Furthermore, the SOD activity level was add up to drought and salinity stress, except Badami in salinity stress (Stand. 1).

Similarly, the activity of PPO in leaves of three varieties increased after treatment with Drought and salinity. Furthermore, Akbari also revealed higher PPO activity in drought and salinity stress, in comparison to other varieties. PPO activity in all of kinds in drought stress increased from 3rd day to 9th and in salinity stress highest activity for this enzyme saved in 3rd day after stress and then lowered it. The results demonstrated that PPO activity levels in drought stress were greater than salinity stress (Stand. 1).

The activity of Kitty showed that types of Badami and Akbari have highest CAT activity under drought stress in 6th and 3rd respectively. Varieties of Sarakhs and Badami showed highest Feline activity in 6th day and Akbari show in 3rd day and then lowered. In salinity stress most of varieties exhibited highest CAT activity in 6th day. Also, CAT activity level to drought and salinity stress (Stand. 1).

Soluble sugars,

Under Drought and Salinity stress conditions, types of Badami in drought and Akbari in drought and salinity stress exhibited higher material of soluble glucose at 9th day. Increasing in soluble sugars in drought and salinity stress started out from 6th day and amount that significantly increased in Badami and Akbary than to Sarakhs variety. Except Badami, in other varieties were soluble sugar content in salinity stress higher than drought stress (Fig. 6).


Glycine-betaine content was significantly increased in salinity and drought than control. The highest content of Glycine-betaine led to Badami in dought stress to 6th day and Akbari in salinity and drought stress at 9th day. In salinity start of Glycine-betaine increasing was from 3rd day for Sarakhs and Badami and 9th day for Akbari. But, in drought stress start of Glycine-betaine increasing was from 3rd day for Badami and 6th day for Akbari and Sarakhs. According to the results, amount of Glycine-betaine in Sarakhs is significantly lower than Akbari and Badami (Fig. 7).


Anthocyanin pigments were extracted from the Pistachio leaves seedlings and roughly assessed spectrophotometrically. Anthocyanin content was significantly increased in salinity and drought stress than control condition. The best content of Anthocyanin in drought stress demonstrated in 9th day in all tested kinds, while in salinity stress there is this increasing in 3rd day for Sarakhs and in 6th day for Akbari and Badami. Compare of three varieties at control condition showed that Akbari and Sarakhs have highest and minimum anthocyanin content (Fig. 8).

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