Sickle Cell Anemia And Hemophilia Biology Essay

Abstract

In the next paper, sickle cell anemia and hemophilia disorders were examined extensively. Sickle cell anemia was found to be the disorder where in fact the red blood cells develop into sickle shaped skin cells anticipated to a mutation of the hemoglobin health proteins. When the cell becomes sickle molded, in addition they become sticky and will clump with other cells in the bloodstream vessel. This may lead to diminish blood flow for the reason that blood vessel that may lead to various results. Sickle cell anemia is a hereditary disease for the reason that it is passed down generations genetically. The primary aftereffect of sickle cell anemia is the reduction in volume of red blood skin cells in the blood and insufficient oxygen transfer to certain areas of the body. Though a wide range of drugs to benefit the pain brought on by sickle cell anemia, there is absolutely no definitive cure to the disorder. However, the key type of treatment is bone marrow transplant. However this procedure is very high-risk and not suggested unless the symptoms of sickle cell anemia are severe. There is much research being done on sickle cell anemia, but no definitive cure has been found. The life span expectancy of patients with sickle cell anemia is from 40 -60 years of age and majority of the patients are African descent.

Hemophilia is the disorder that stops the body to stop bleeding. If one is cut, your body won't form clots to avoid the blood loss because people who have hemophilia lack a clotting factor. This is also a hereditary disorder and is available only on the X chromosome. Hemophilia can be split into two categories: hemophilia A (lacks clotting factor 8) and hemophilia B (lacks clotting factor 9). About 9 out of 10 individuals who have hemophilia have type A. Seldom, hemophilia can be had. This means that you can develop it throughout your life span. About 18, 000 people in america have hemophilia. Each year, about 400 infants are created with the disorder. Hemophilia usually occurs only in males (with very exceptional exceptions). The major signs or symptoms of hemophilia are abnormal hemorrhage and easy bruising. The primary treatment for hemophilia is named replacement remedy. Concentrates of clotting factor 8 or clotting factor 9 are gradually dripped in or injected into a vein. These infusions help replace the clotting factor that's missing or low. Hemophilia centers are located in many regions of america. These centers can provide treatment, education, and support to hemophilia patients, their own families, and their healthcare providers.

Sickle Cell Anemia

What is Sickle Cell Anemia?

Sickle Cell Anemia or sickle cell disease is a blood vessels disorder that is hereditary. This disorder affects the red blood vessels cells of the body and can cause much harm to your body. It triggers the red blood vessels cells of your body to become an abnormal condition, usually in the form of an sickle or crescent. Red blood vessels cells are skin cells that carry nutrients and air to different organs in the body and carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs. However, Sickle Cell Anemia basically does not enable the red bloodstream cells to act normally. The way a red blood cell is able to carry the oxygen substances to the organs is by a protein molecule on the cell called hemoglobin. This molecule can carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and go back skin tightening and to the lungs. A defect of the molecule can affect every part of the body that is supplied oxygen by red bloodstream skin cells which is everything.

In Sickle Cell Anemia, the regular hemoglobin is mutated and changes from the standard hemoglobin A to hemoglobin S. the power for a protein to be mutated that is situated on the red bloodstream cells means that this mutation can will be passed on to the person's child, making this disease hereditary. The mutated hemoglobin triggers the complete normal red blood cell to become sickle designed and stickier. The unnatural cells get started to clump alongside one another and have a horrible time being transferred throughout your body through the arteries. When the blood vessels become obstructed by the sickle skin cells, blood flow lessens in that part of the body. This may cause a lack of air in those areas which, ultimately, contributes to those cells loss of life.

Another attribute of Sickle Cell Anemia would be that the abnormal red blood cells have a shorter life span. Normal red bloodstream cells usually live up to 120 days and through an activity called phagocytosis they are simply removed from blood circulation. However, the red blood cells contaminated with the sickle cell disease live no more than 10 to 20 days and nights. This means that the body needs to produce ten times as many red blood cells if the person has Sickle Cell Anemia when compared to a normal person. However, the body cannot produce that lots of red blood cells that fast. Red bloodstream cells are stated in bone marrow, found in the interior hollow interior part of bones, by an activity called erythropoiesis. The bone marrow cannot produce red blood skin cells fast enough to replace the dying ones. This can lead to lowered number of red blood cells which can lead to many side effects.

Causes of Sickle Cell Anemia

Sickle Cell Anemia is a kind of disease that someone cannot get unless if indeed they were created with it. This disease is an inherited blood vessels disorder any particular one exists with. A person is delivered with genes that give him/her distinctive appearance and personality. They get these genes from other parents, 50 percent from each. In Sickle Cell Anemia, there is a specific gene that can be passed down generation that will cause the disorder. This gene, sickle cell gene (HbAS), is a recessive kind of gene meaning unless there exists another one than it, you won't be indicated. However, that gene will participate them forever and there will be a 50% chance that the youngster will have that gene. However, if two different people with the sickle cell gene have a child, then there will be a 25 %25 % chance that there child will contain the disorder, 50% chance that the youngster will have only sickle cell gene, and 25% the youngster will have zero copies of the sickle cell gene.

This gene which symbolizes a specific trait will cause the Sickle Cell Anemia. After the person gets the trait, then it'll commence to cause the body to make irregular protein on the red bloodstream skin cells called hemoglobin. As mentioned earlier, the mutated form of hemoglobin causes the cell to be sickle designed and cause all sorts of havoc in the body. In addition, a unique trait about Sickle Cell Anemia is that once someone gets it, there is no way to reduce it. Also since this is a genetic disease, there may be different modifications of the disease. In case a person inherits one sickle cell trait and if the person has the unnatural hemoglobin C (not hemoglobin S which exists in Sickle Cell Anemia), then your person will develop a milder form of the Sickle Cell Anemia disease called HbSC. When a person inherits one sickle cell gene and one gene for beta thalassemia (a different type of anemia) which can be "0" or "+" then the person will either severe case of Sickle Cell Anemia (if HbS Beta 0-thalassemia) or a milder case of it (if HbS beta +-thalassemia).

Symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia

Even though that folks are given birth to with Sickle Cell Anemia, the symptoms do not show up until after 4 a few months of age. The symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia can be divided into three categories: symptoms related to anemia, symptoms related to pain, and symptoms that happen credited to disorder.

The first category handles how the lack of red blood skin cells can affect the entire body. The most common symptom is fatigue because for the body to function and stay alert, it requires oxygen which is what anemia decreases. Furthermore, anemia causes dizziness, headaches, pale skin, breasts pain, coldness in the hands and legs, and shortness of breath. They are all triggered by having less oxygen reaching certain areas of your body.

The second category deals with symptoms that are related to pain. A person with Sickle Cell Anemia is likely to point out pain throughout their body which is called sickle cell turmoil. This occurs when there's a mass of sickle skin cells in the arteries. With decreased blood flow to organs and limbs, there exists usually pointed pain and organ destruction. This crisis also has a range how painful the pain is. If it is an acute agony, then your pain will be slight to severe and could last from hours to days. Alternatively, chronic pain can last for a lot longer time frame and will be hard to bear and psychologically draining. This pain may significantly limit your day to day activities.

The final category handles the problems of Sickle Cell Anemia. This category examines certain problems that arise using parts of the body due to the Sickle Cell Anemia. The first complication is called Hand-Foot Symptoms. This occurs when the mass of sickle skin cells block a blood vessels vessel in the limbs of the body. This will cause there to be pain, swelling, and/or fever. This is syndrome is main signs a child may have Sickle Cell Anemia.

The next complication comes up in the spleen. The spleen filter systems out unnatural red blood skin cells and helps struggle infections. If one has Sickle Cell Anemia, the spleen could become enlarged due to all or any of the sickle skin cells getting stuck in the spleen. In the event the spleen becomes enlarged, then your person will feel weakened, have pale lips, higher respiration rate, extreme thirst, and abdominal pain. To take care of the enlarged spleen, the individual should get a blood vessels transfusion. Another complication that can occur is microbe infections. Since Sickle Cell Anemia impacts the immune fighting with each other organ, the spleen, both young and old patients will have a hard time fighting infections. Small children who have a damaged spleen will likely die in just a few days because of the infections. Some typically common infections a kid gets are pneumonia, meningitis, influenza, and hepatitis.

Another life threatening complication credited to Sickle Cell Anemia is serious chest syndrome. This occurs when there exists sickle cells trapped in the lungs which might lead to the patient growing pulmonary arterial hypertension. This is when the lungs are broken which make it hard for the heart to pump blood vessels through the lungs. This may lead to raised heartrate and pressure. A problem that is normal with children is their delayed expansion and puberty. This is induced by the shortage of red blood cells in the torso. Young children will expand slower and reach puberty later than normal children. Men and women will be thin and smaller than normal adults.

A much more serious complication that can come up in men and women however, is a stroke. Sickle Cell Anemia can cause both types of strokes in individuals: a bloodstream vessel in the mind is obstructed or a blood vessels vessel bursts. Both types of strokes lead to learning disabilities, brain harm, paralysis, or even fatality.

Sickle Cell Anemia can also lead to priapism. This is when a man Sickle Cell Anemia patient will have painful unwelcomed erections. This will appear because the sickle skin cells block the blood flow out of any erect male organ.

Since sickle skin cells have a shorted life time, they breakdown too fast for your body to eliminate them from your body. Whenever a red blood vessels cell dies, it'll release the hemoglobin protein by means of bilirubin. The bilirubin will form stones in the gallbladder called gallstones. This will cause the patient to feel pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, sweating, chills, clay-colored stools, or jaundice. Jaundice is when your skin color of a patient becomes to a yellowish color because of enhanced bilirubin level in the blood.

A more severe sign of Sickle Cell Anemia are ulcers or sores that get started as small, raised, crusted sores on the lower third of the leg. Leg sores arise more often in guys than in females. These sores usually appear between the age groups of 10 and 50. The reason for sickle cell ulcers isn't clear. The amount of ulcers can vary from one to many. Some heal quickly, but others persist for years or come back after recovery.

The previous major complication of Sickle Cell Anemia is multiple organ failures. This may be one of the most rare issues but is one of the very most dangerous. If way too many of your organs are unsuccessful, then there's a high probability that you'll die. Though only a few of the symptoms of Sickle Cell Anemia have been provided, there are a lot more which can result in serious damage to your body if removed unattended.

Demographics

Though Sickle Cell Anemia is a worldwide disease, it is most common in people who result from Africa, South America, Central America, specifically panama, the Caribbean islands, Turkey, Greece, Italy, other Mediterranean countries, India, and Saudi Arabia. Statistically, 1 atlanta divorce attorneys 500 African American births has the sickle cell disease and about 1 in every 1, 000 Hispanic People in the usa have the disease. About 2 million people hold the sickle cell trait in the us and about 1 in 12 African Us citizens carry the characteristic in America. There have been close to 72, 000 instances of Sickle Cell Anemia in the us and the prevalence rate in America is 0. 10% or 272, 000 people. The deaths from Sickle Cell Anemia are near to 500 fatalities per time.

Diagnosis

One way someone can find out if they have Sickle Cell Anemia is by a straightforward blood test. When a baby exists, he/she will go through some newborn screening tests which test for diseases or disorders the infant may have. A bloodstream test will show if the baby gets the disease or if he/she has only the trait. Once the lab tests are conformed by another test, the infant will be delivered to a hematologist who's an expert in bloodstream diseases and disorders for even more guidance.

There is also a means for a mother or father to learn if the youngster will have sickle cell anemia before he/she exists. Doctors do this by taking an example of amniotic smooth or tissue from the placenta and evaluating it for sickle cell anemia gene instead of the hemoglobin the gene makes.

Treatment

Treatment for sickle cell anemia can be divided into the three categories which were created for the various types of symptoms. The first category was the pain category. To take care of the pain triggered by sickle cell anemia, pain killers and liquids are used. To treat the pain, essential fluids and pain killers are used because the essential fluids will prevent dehydration which is brought on by the condition. The pain killers that doctors prescribe range from acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and narcotics which include meperidine, morphine, oxycodone and more.

Another drug that doctors use for sickle cell anemia is hydroxyurea. This drug will reduce the amount of pain crises the individual experiences. This drug does not treat the pain crises when they occur but stops them from occurring by any means. Also research has discovered that this drug will reduce organ harm and improve progress of children.

The treatment talked about in the next category, symptoms that package with Anemia, can help treat anemia. The procedure is called bloodstream transfusion and is used to take care of severe conditions of anemia. Bloodstream transfusion is a procedure where blood is directed at the patient by an intravenous brand. This is done to replace the inactive red blood cells that were due to the disease.

The last category handled complications that happen due to sickle cell anemia. One complication that can be treated is an infection. Due to the reduced range of red blood cells, the human disease fighting capability is weakened and children will be vulnerable for harmful attacks. One infection that always kills children is pneumonia. To take care of pneumonia, children should take vaccines regularly. Also to treat other infections, antibiotic medicines and bloodstream transfusion may be used.

To treat the serious chest syndrome that comes from sickle cell anemia, the patient must get cared for with oxygen, bloodstream transfusions, and antibiotics. The main medication for this complication is the same one that reduces the number of pain crises, hydroxyurea.

To prevent and treat patients with sickle cell anemia that experience strokes, the individual should get ultrasound scans of these heads. This allows the doctor gauge the blood flow to the mind decide if there are any issues because of the sickle cell disease. The ulcers in the lower leg can be treated with pain killers, cleansing solutions, ointments or ointments, and skin area grafts (for severe ulcers). And finally, to treat the gallstones, surgery may be needed to remove them from the gallbladder. Surgery can also be used to help patients that contain priapism.

Since the discovery of sickle cell anemia, doctors have been working hard to find new treatments for the disease. In recent years, there have been new and experimental treatments that help patients with the disease. Among these treatments is bone marrow transplant. Since the sickle cell anemia affects the red blood vessels cell production, it was thought that exchanging the materials the produces the cells may help people with the disease. After numerous studies, it's been shown that bone marrow transplant is somewhat of a remedy. However, the procedure is very dangerous and lead to serious side results or even death. Due to this risk, only young patients and people with significant symptoms or problems get the procedure. The procedure continues to be being researched.

Another experimental treatment is gene remedy. Gene remedy is when experts insert the normal gene for hemoglobin creation in to the bone marrow of infected patients. Researchers hope that the normal genes will commence to produce the correct hemoglobin or if they can cancel the sickle cell gene by turning it off in infants. In addition, researchers are producing new drugs that may help patients. On medication has butyric acid in it which can raise the amount of normal hemoglobin in the bloodstream. Another medication has nitric oxide in it which makes the actual sickle skin cells less sticky that may lead to less obstructed blood vessels. The ultimate drug consists of decitadine. This will increase the amount of certain hemoglobin health proteins that bears more oxygen. Though there a wide range of drugs that seem to be that they can work, there still more research to be achieved.

Research

Due to the severe nature of sickle cell anemia, there are numerous doctors spending so much time to discover a definitive cure. One research that may help with finding a cure dealt with the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in individuals with sickle cell disease. The research group examined the mechanism of its development, and its prospective prognostic significances. They performed Doppler echocardiographic assessments of pulmonary-artery systolic pressure in 195 consecutive patients (82 men and 113 women with the average years of 36). The pulmonary hypertension was prospectively thought as a tricuspid regurgitant aircraft velocity of at least 2. 5 m per second. Patients were adopted for a mean of 1. 5 years, and data were censored at the time of death or loss to follow-up.

The group reached the next results. They decided that the Doppler-defined pulmonary hypertension happened in 32 percent of patients. Multiple logistic-regression research, by using the dichotomous variable of the tricuspid regurgitant aircraft velocity of less than 2. 5 m per second or 2. 5 m per second or more, determined a self-reported background of cardiovascular or renal difficulties, increased systolic blood circulation pressure, high lactate dehydrogenase levels (a marker of hemolysis), high degrees of alkaline phosphatase, and low transferrin levels as significant indie correlates of pulmonary hypertension. The fetal hemoglobin level, white-cell count, and platelet matter and the use of hydroxyurea remedy were unrelated to pulmonary hypertension. A tricuspid regurgitant aircraft velocity of at least 2. 5 m per second, in comparison with a speed of significantly less than 2. 5 m per second, was highly associated with an increased risk of fatality and remained so after adjustment for other possible risk factors in a proportional-hazards regression model.

They emerged to the next conclusions. They assumed that the pulmonary hypertension, diagnosed by Doppler echocardiography, is common in people with sickle cell disease. It appears to be a problem of persistent hemolysis, is resilient to hydroxyurea remedy, and confers a high risk of death.

Social Impact

Though many think that coping with sickle cell anemia is impossible, that is not true. The infected people can live like any other person with just a few deviations. The only real negative thing about living with sickle cell anemia is the fact that the life span expectancy is between 40 and 60 years old. However an individual can live longer if indeed they maintain a wholesome lifestyle, control the difficulties that come up from the disease, and if indeed they learn the correct ways to handle the pain.

A healthy life-style means you take in healthy foods or foods that contain certain vitamins that might help your body cope with the disease. A good example of a vitamin supplements would be folic acid. Also doctors suggest patients to drink a lot of water so he/she won't become dehydrated.

To help prevent and control the issues of sickle cell anemia, the individual needs to follow certain instructions and warnings. Some of these instructions and warnings include preventing decongestants and drugs that tighten up arteries. Also the individual should avoid surviving in extreme hot and wintry areas or in low oxygen level areas (well above sea level places). Also doctors advise that the individual avoid or reduce stress in their life and avoid jobs that want a whole lot of physical labor. In addition, the patient should get all of the vaccines and flu pictures that exist.

Though pursuing doctor's recommendations can help an individual, learning and studying different treatments and lifestyle choices independently can help them a great deal. If a patient reads about sickle cell anemia, they will be better equipped to deal with symptoms and problems that may arise. In the event that you or someone in your loved ones has sickle cell anemia, you may want assistance with the stresses of this lifelong disease. Sickle cell centers and clinics can provide information and guidance. Ask your physician or the personnel at a sickle cell middle if there are support groups for families locally. Talking with others who are facing the same obstacles you are are a good idea. It's especially important to find ways to control - and handle - pain. Different techniques work with different people, but it might be worth trying home heating pads, hot baths, massages or physical therapy. Prayer, relatives and buddies can also be resources of support. When you have a kid with sickle cell anemia, learn as much as you can about the condition and make sure your child provides the best health care possible. A kid with sickle cell disease has special needs and requires regular health care. Your doctor can clarify how often to bring your son or daughter for medical care and you skill if she or he becomes sick.

Conclusion

Sickle cell anemia is a significant disease that must be addressed immediately. The quantity of individuals that find out about sickle cell anemia is alarmingly low and that has to change. People must become aware of the dangers of the disease and must do everything in their power to help prevent it from distributing. This disease can result in death in infants, children, teenagers, and adults. Additionally it is an internationally disorder that requires more attention.

This disease, which is genetically passed down to the people, needs more people exploring it and looking for treatments to. Though there a wide range of doctors hard at the job to discover a cure, there may be a lot more that you can do. Though there is a group of men and women unacquainted with this disease, it generally does not mean the work already done should be disregard. Through the effort of doctors, we've been able to find nearly every symptom of sickle cell anemia and exactly how to treat the majority of the symptoms. To discover a stop for sickle cell anemia, everyone must do their part and assist in a way.

Hemophilia

What is Hemophilia?

Hemophilia is a blood vessels disorder that inhibits your blood vessels to clot normally. When the body experiences an injury where in fact the person commences to bleed, your body reacts in an exceedingly unique manner. Blood is a liquid membrane that is composed red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. The goal of the blood is to transport nutrients and air from the lungs to different areas of the body and to move carbon dioxide and waste materials from those areas back to the lungs. Bloodstream also serves as a transport system for white blood cells which can be part of the immune system and fighters of the immune system. However, bloodstream also provides as a clotting mechanism. In order for the body to clot an injury, platelets must have the ability to stick together at the accident site. This stickiness is called the blood vessels clotting factor. Hemophilia is a disorder that causes people to have little to none clotting factor.

Hemophilia is usually an inherited disease which will not allow your blood vessels to clot externally or internally. People who have hemophilia will have a gene that will cause the clotting factor, a health proteins, to not work properly which will cause the individual to keep bleeding. The clotting factor is required to form clots with platelets.

Hemophilia can be split into two major types: hemophilia A or hemophilia B. about 9 out of 10 people who have hemophilia will have type A hemophilia this means the body is absent or has low degrees of clotting factor 8. If the person has type B, then they are missing or have low levels of clotting factor 9.

In addition, hemophilia is usually genetically received but some can form hemophilia during their lifetime. This may happen if the body forms antibodies (protein) to the clotting factors in your blood vessels. The antibodies can avoid the clotting factors from working.

Causes of Hemophilia

A person usually inherits hemophilia but as reviewed earlier, they can develop hemophilia during their lifetime. If a disease is inherited, then that means the parents of the individual will likewise have the gene for the condition. In the case of hemophilia, the gene for hemophilia is located on the X chromosome. Females have two X chromosomes, while guys have one X and one Y chromosome. Only the X chromosome carries the genes related to clotting factors. A guy who has the unnatural gene on his X chromosome will have hemophilia. A lady will need to have the abnormal gene on both of her X chromosomes to acquire hemophilia; this is very rare. A female is a "carrier" of hemophilia if she's the unnatural gene using one of her X chromosomes. Despite the fact that she does not have the condition, she can cross the gene to her children.

If a daddy doesn't have the hemophilia characteristic but the mother does have only 1 copy of the gene plus they have 2 daughters and 2 sons, then each child has a 50 percent chance of inheriting the excessive gene from her mother and being a carrier. Each child has a 50 percent potential for inheriting the irregular gene from his mother and having hemophilia. However if the father has hemophilia and the mother has neither hemophilia or the hemophilia trait and they have 2 daughters and 2 sons, then each daughter will inherit the irregular gene from her father and be a carrier. None of them of the sons will inherit the unusual gene using their company father, and, therefore, none will have hemophilia. Very hardly ever, a girl is born with hemophilia. This may happen if her daddy has hemophilia and her mom is a carrier.

In addition to the genes that cause hemophilia, there are other factors that may cause it. One factor is the kind of clotting factor that the individual is missing. If the individual has hemophilia A, then the person lacks clotting factor 8. If the person has hemophilia B, then the person lacks the clotting factor 9.

Finally, if the person has Hemophilia C which is unusual in the United States, then person has another type of inheritance design and lacks clotting factor 9.

Symptoms of Hemophilia

The main warning sign of hemophilia is excessive blood loss externally and internally. The degree of bleeding depends upon the sort and severeness of the hemophilia. Children who have mild hemophilia may not have symptoms unless they have got excessive bleeding from a dental care procedure, an accident, or surgery. In addition, the symptoms of hemophilia vary depending about how lacking your clotting factors are. If degrees of your lacking clotting factor are extremely low, you may experience spontaneous hemorrhage. If levels of your lacking clotting factor are just a bit to moderately low, you might bleed only after surgery or stress. If you bleed spontaneously then you have the next symptoms: many large or deep bruises, joint pain and bloating caused by internal bleeding, unexplained blood loss or bruising, bleeding in your urine or feces, and prolonged blood loss from reductions or incidents, or after surgery or teeth extraction.

Bleeding in the legs, elbows, or other joints is another common form of inside bleeding in people who have hemophilia. This blood loss may appear without obvious personal injury. Initially, the bleeding triggers tightness in the joint with no real pain or any noticeable signs of bleeding. The joint then becomes enlarged, hot to touch, and painful to bend. Swelling continues as hemorrhage continues. Eventually, movement in the joint is temporarily lost. Pain can be severe. Joint bleeding that isn't quickly treated can permanently ruin the joint. Internal hemorrhage in the brain is a very serious problem of hemophilia that can occur after a simple bump on the head or a more serious accident. The signs and symptoms of blood loss in the brain include long-lasting, unpleasant headaches or neck of the guitar pain or tightness or convulsions or seizures.

Demographics

Hemophilia influences 1 in 5, 000 male births. About 400 babies are delivered with hemophilia each year. The exact quantity of people coping with hemophilia in the United States is not known. Currently, the quantity of men and women with hemophilia in the United States is estimated to be about 20, 000. In the United States, most people who have hemophilia are diagnosed at a very young age. Predicated on CDC data, the median time at analysis is 36 months for people with gentle hemophilia, 8 calendar months for people that have average hemophilia, and four weeks for people that have severe hemophilia. In about two thirds of cases, there is a genealogy of hemophilia. The diagnosis of hemophilia is manufactured using a special blood test and most newborns can be analyzed soon after delivery. Sometimes prenatal hereditary testing is done to detect hemophilia before delivery.

Treatment

Though, like sickle cell anemia, there is no definitive treat for hemophilia, there are extensive treatments that help people deal with the condition. However, the treatments people get is dependant on the severe nature of the disease. However there is main treatment for hemophilia; it is named replacement therapy. In this therapy, the absent clotting factor is injected in to the body intravenously to displace the clotting factor. Though this treatment seems good, there is a drawback, the patient has to continuously take shots of the therapy to prevent bleeding. Antifibrinolytic drugs (including tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid) may be used with replacement therapy. They may be given as a supplement, and they help to keep bloodstream clots from wearing down. Another complication to the treatment is that the body may develop antibodies that take action from the new clotting factor or there might be damage to joint parts, muscles, or other parts of the body resulting from delays in treatment. Antibodies can damage the clotting factor before it includes a chance to work. This is an extremely serious problem. It helps prevent the key treatment for hemophilia (alternative therapy) from working. Antibodies to clotting factor, also known as inhibitors, develop in about 20 percent of people who've severe hemophilia A and 1 percent of people who've hemophilia B. When antibodies develop, doctors might use larger dosages of clotting factor or try different clotting factor resources. Sometimes, the antibodies disappear completely.

Desmopressin (DDAVP) is a man-made hormone used to treat individuals who have mild to average hemophilia A. DDAVP isn't used to treat hemophilia B or severe hemophilia A. DDAVP stimulates the discharge of stored factor VIII and von Willebrand factor; it also escalates the level of these protein in your blood. Von Willebrand factor holds and binds factor VIII, which may then stay static in the bloodstream longer.

Researchers are trying to find ways to correct the faulty genes that cause hemophilia. Such gene therapy hasn't yet developed to the point that it's an accepted treatment. But analysts continue to test gene therapies for hemophilia in professional medical trials.

Research

Experimental methods are currently being investigated as is possible breakthroughs for curing blood loss disorders. Researchers will work on a method to insert better functioning factor VIII or factor IX genes in to the cells of individuals with hemophilia so their blood vessels will clot more effectively. It is hoped that gene therapy will lead to patients having fewer bleeding episodes. Gene remedy might eventually help people who have hemophilia begin producing their own clotting factor, in so doing getting rid of or at least lessening their dependence on regular infusions. With this move forward, there is the prospect of someone born with severe hemophilia to eventually have significantly milder symptoms. Some gene remedy research tests have been performed in humans with blended results. The near future for gene therapy in hemophilia is continuing albeit at a moderate pace.

Social Impact

Though many think people with hemophilia cannot live a normal life, which is false. In order for folks with hemophilia to live a life normal lives, they need to take steps to prevent bleeding problems. The first step is to get in contact with the federal government about getting a hemophilia treatment center. This center will provide resources for people and people influenced by hemophilia.

However, so safeguards you may take to avoid issues is to follow your treatment plan exactly, get regular checkups and vaccinations, and notify all your health care providers which you have hemophilia, get regular dental hygiene, and know the signs or symptoms of blood loss in joint parts and other parts of your body.

If a family member is diagnosed with hemophilia, then family encounters emotional, financial, interpersonal, and other strains. It could help everyone, if the family discovers all they can about the disorder and receive the support the patient needs.

People who've mild hemophilia may take part in a variety of activities. Those people who have severe hemophilia should avoid contact sports and alternative activities that are likely to lead to injury that could cause blood loss. Physical therapists at Hemophilia Treatment Centers can develop exercise programs personalized to your preferences and educate you on how to exercise safely.

It's not often safe for folks who have bleeding problems to participate in contact sports, such as soccer, hockey, and wrestling. To prevent bleeding, additionally you might be able to take clotting factors preceding to exercise or a sporting event.

Patients with hemophilia should avoid medicines that raise the risk of blood loss like aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications.

Conclusion

Hemophilia is a genetic disorder that helps prevent a person from clotting a chop externally or internally. This disease is a very serious disease in that it causes thousands of deaths every year. Though hemophilia will not cause as much deaths per annum as heart disease, it still takes the lives of several innocent children and adults. Additionally it is an internationally disease and should be researched every day. Many people do not know of hemophilia which can attribute to having less interest of analysts. However, there are doctors who are working day and night to discover a cure to the disease.

Work Cited

"Explanation, Symptoms of Hemophilia. " Hemophilia. Mayo Medical clinic, 16 May 2009. Web. 1 Apr 2010. .

Golonka, Debby. "Sickle Cell Disease. " Yahoo Health. Yahoo! Inc. , 09 December 2008. Web. 2 Apr 2010. .

"Hemophilia. " Centers for Disease Control and Avoidance. Centers for Disease Control and Avoidance, 03 Mar 2010. Web. 2 Apr 2010. .

Hoots KW, et al. Treatment of hemophilia. http://www. uptodate. com/home/index. html. Reached March 21, 2010.

Parks, Robin. "Hemophilia - Subject matter Analysis. " Yahoo Health. Yahoo! Inc. , 20 Aug 2007. Web. 2 Apr 2010. .

"Sickle Cell Anemia. " Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Avoidance, 03 Mar 2010. Web. 2 Apr 2010. .

"WHAT'S Sickle Cell Anemia. " Diseases and Conditions Index. Country wide Heart and soul Lung and Blood vessels Institute, Aug 2008. Web. 1 Apr 2010. .

"WHAT'S Hemophilia?. " Diseases and Conditions Index. Country wide Heart and soul Lung and Blood vessels Institute, Jul 2009. Web. 1 Apr 2010. .

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