The Digestion OF THE Poultry Sandwich Biology Essay

Throughout this essay the digestion of the hen sandwich will be discussed with reference to five different things; the necessity for digestive function, physical digestion in relation to muscular and stressed involvement and chemical type participation, hormone and enzyme action, how each enzyme serves on each part of the sandwich, the tissues and coating of the digestive system and, finally, how each part of the hen sandwich is digested and absorbed. The 3rd and fifth point will be merged and explained jointly as the article takes a voyage through the digestive tract.

The dependence on digestion is essential to the human body's success. When food first enters your body it is a good form that can't be digested, so the mouth commences the digestion process by releasing digestive juices and using tooth to chew and breakdown the food into a more liquid founded form. Since it goes down the digestive system it is broken down even more into molecules that can be absorbed and taken up to cells around your body for energy, duplication and to reinforce them.

There are many features of digestive function and these are split into two categories; physical digestion and chemical digestion. In physical digestive function there are two factors that contribute to the digestion of food; muscular and stressed participation. The muscular participation starts in the oral cavity, more specifically with the tongue, which assists in the chewing of food and finally forces food into the oesophagus. Along with the oesophagus, the other organ in the digestive tract have a muscle coating underneath them making their walls to go which forces the food down with a wave like action. This influx like action is called 'peristalsis'(Potter, S. 2008. AQA Biology, Phillip Alans Improvements). This forces the food earned the tract and through the intestinal organs by the muscles contracting making a small section, as the muscle retains contracting it required the meals in a propelling fashion downwards towards its next vacation spot; the belly. When the meals has almost reach the tummy, the wedding ring like muscle called the 'gastroesophageal sphincter'(Jim Swan, 2006. , The Digestive Sytsem) which starts and let us food through then closes behind it to avoid too much food coming into the tummy, almost such as a door. After the food has entered the abdomen the abdominals mix the partly digested food and the juices the abdominal has produced. The abdominal also uses its top muscles to store food and also really helps to empty the stomach into the small intestine. Once in the tiny intestine the meals, which is currently in a little enough form, is soaked up into its wall space and is considered and distributed around the body. The waste products of the food are then required into the colon where they wait until they can be pushed out of the body as faeces.

Nerves are what makes the muscles agreement and force the food through the digestive tract. You will find two different kinds; extrinsic and intrinsic. The extrinsic nerves will be the outside the house nerves; these nerves control the muscles in the organs in the digestive tract. They are produced by the brain and spinal-cord and they let out two chemicals; acetylcholine and adrenaline. The acetylcholine is the substance that triggers the muscles to deal and the adrenaline makes them relax and finally stop the procedure of digestive function. The intrinsic nerves are the inside nerves and these lie in the wall space of the organs of the digestive system. Their main function is release a substances that start, control the quickness and stop the production of enzymes that digest food.

In chemical digestive function there's also two factors that add; hormones and enzyme action. There's a covering in the belly and small intestine called the mucosa, in this level are skin cells which produce and then release hormones which also, along with muscles and nerves, control digestive function. There are five different hormones, which have their own jobs within the procedure of digestion; Gastrin makes the belly produce acid for the digestive function of food as well as for dissolving them, CCK allows the pancreas to make pancreatic juice which contains enzymes that help break down molecules, and Secretin, this is actually the hormone gets the most tasks of most three, its first job is to make the pancreas create a drink that is packed with bicarbonate which will neutralize the stomach acid, its second job is to help make the abdominal produce pepsin which digests proteins and lastly its third job is to make the liver produce bile. The other hormones are marginally different, they stimulate and regulate desire for food; Ghrelin stimulates appetite and is manufactured in the belly and upper intestine which is regulated by the absence of food, and Peptide YY is the response made by meals in the system and inhibits cravings.

The action associated with an enzyme is to breakdown molecules so they can be dissolved and transported through your body. Each enzyme is specifically made for only 1 substrate. The enzyme and the substrate fit mutually, like and lock and key, and the enzyme alters the substrate into products that are then released to be assimilated into the bloodstream, following this the enzyme can respond again but only with the same type of substrate.

When the poultry salad sandwich first gets into the oral cavity the salivary glands produce a digestive juice called salivary amylase which commences to break down or hydrolyse the starch which is in the loaf of bread of the poultry salad sandwich. Amylase reduces sugars, more specifically the starch in the sugars and changes it into maltose; this is a far more acceptable form that the body can absorb. As the chicken salad sandwich carries on its journey it enters the abdominal where it is stored. Within the belly the acid denatures the amylase enzyme which stops it from working. Once the food has migrated from the tummy to the small intestine, the pancreatic amylase, which is produced in the pancreatic juices, goes on the break down of the starch in the bread of the sandwich to a chemical called maltose. As the food is further forced along the small intestine it produces maltase which breaks down the maltose into an even smaller molecule called sugar. The rooster in the sandwich begins to be broken down in the mouth area where it is chewed to make smaller portions. When it reaches the stomach it commences the hydrolysis process, the tummy produces an enzyme called pepsin, and this partially breaks down the protein into amino acid. This then trips to the small intestine where in fact the poultry is further divided by an enzyme called trysin which proceeds the break down of proteins to proteins. The butter in the rooster salad sandwich is entirely divided in the small intestine into emulsified extra fat and fatty acids by enzymes stated in the liver and pancreas called bile and lipase. The lettuce in the chicken breast salad sandwich cannot be divided as it is a fibre, so it passes through the system by being chewed into smaller parts and this inflatable water is ingested through the intestinal wall space, and ends its voyage by leaving the body in the faeces, along with all the current other waste material from the poultry sandwich. The end products of the chicken sandwich, sucrose, amino acids, emulsified fat and glycerol/fatty acids are assimilated through the intestinal wall. There is a part of mucosa that lines the wall membrane that involves folds that are filled with villi that are then covered with microvilli which escalates the surface area significantly. It is through this surface area that the nutrients are soaked up and for this reason the total amount and rate of absorption is increased.

The organs of the digestive tract are the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, belly, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and the anus. There are three main elements of the mouth area, the lips which are created out of 'stratified squamous keratinized epithelium, stratified squamous non keratinized epithelium, skeletal muscle, and fibroelastic connective tissue'(http://lifesci. rutgers. edu/~babiarz/digest. htm). The tongue is made out of 'skeletal muscle, glands, lymphatic tissues and epithelial tissue'(http://lifesci. rutgers. edu/~babiarz/digest. htm), and the teeth are made mainly out of 'calcified connective muscle'. You can find three tissues that define the oesophagus; skeletal tissues, stratified squamous non keratinized epithelium and simple muscle. Moving down to the abdomen, it is clear that it is also manufactured from three types of tissue, these are easy muscle, glands and epithelium. After the stomach comes the tiny and large intestine which are made of simple columnar epithelium, which is the tissues that makes the villi and the micro villi, and the large intestine is made out of epithelial structure. Finally, comes the rectum and the anus, the rectum includes simple columnar epithelium and the anus is manufactured with stratified squamous epithelium.

The digestive tract is a essential part of day-to-day life for the human body, it reduces food to a form that can be absorbed by your body gives us energy and everything we need. It works in such a way that this pulls all the vital nutrients from the food, absorbs them and then transports them around their body. Enzymes like protease and amylase play a significant part in the digestive function of food and will be the juices that hydrolyse the food we eat. There are a great many other factors that work alongside the enzymes that play a substantial role in the digestive function of food; muscular and hormone involvement, and nerves, plus they all interact so that we as individual may survive, and play this spin so that it is an unconscious action that people very almost never need to take into account.

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