Alderfers Modified Need Hierarchy Model

Most concepts of inspiration that connect with the workforce get started with the assumption that behaviour, at least in part, is directed towards the satisfaction of needs or motives. Meanings of determination include

"Willingness to exert work to attain the organization's goals, conditioned by this effort's ability to satisfy specific needs" (Robbins & Coulter, 1996).

"An employee's desire to work consists of all the drives, makes and affected- mindful or unconscious- that cause the worker to want to achieve certain seeks" (Graham and Bennett 1998 p60)

"Techniques that account for an individual's power, route and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal. " Robbins and Judge (2009, p. 209)

There are extensive definitions of inspiration, however the root concept is apparently that, "some driving drive within individuals by which they try to achieve some goal in order to fulfil some need or expectation" (Mullins, 2002 p418). Rudolph and Kleiner (1989) and Armstrong (1999) suggest that it could be divided into two categories, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.

Extrinsic motivation relates to 'tangible benefits' such as salary, fringe benefits, security, contract of service, advertising, the task environment and conditions of work.

Whereas intrinsic inspiration relates to 'mental health' rewards like the opportunity to use one's ability, a sense of challenge and achievement, obtaining appreciation, positive reputation, and being treated in a caring and considerate manner.

The need for the construction industry in relation to the general economy

The building and engineering industry is essential to welfare and success in the united kingdom. In 2011 the Gross Value Added of the engineering industry in the UK was 89. 5 billion, 6. 7% of total GVA (Gross value added).

There were 2. 04 million workforce jobs in the UK building industry in March 2012, 6. 4% of all workforce careers.

The GVA of the industry dropped in 2008, 2009 and 2010 both in terms of billions but also its talk about of the full total economy, 2011 observed a slight restoration but the GVA of the building industry remained below pre-recession levels.

(http://www. parliament. uk/briefing-papers/SN01432)

The need for motivation

Motivation is really important to organisations and companies of most sizes; in a competitive market such as the building industry it is essential that workers are motivated in order to convert physical and financial resources into useful products, finally assisting to reduce the price of operations.

According to Sabah Karimi (2010) "Motivation is important in order to be able to attain the organization's goals also to attain long and short-term objectives. "

Managers strive to encourage people in organisations to perform at high levels. This implies getting them to work hard, to come quickly to work regularly and also to make positive contributions to the organisations goals. However job performance not only is determined by determination but also potential and environmental factors.

The relationship of Performance can be stated the following

P = M + A + E

With, P = performance, M = determination, A= ability, and E = environment

To generate high degrees of performance an employee must be encouraged to do the job, must have the capability to complete the job effectively and must be provided with the required equipment/information to do so.

Mullins (2002) identifies work by Krietner et al. who proposes that although desire is a required contributor for job performance, it isn't the only one. Alongside ability, motivation is also a combo of degree of skill, knowledge about how to complete the task, feelings and feelings, and facilitating/inhibiting conditions not under the individuals' control.

Performance and satisfaction are areas commonly discussed when discussing desire. Organisations not only want operatives that are successful, however they also want to ensure that their labor force is satisfied in order to reduce staff turnover.

"Boredom and stress at work is usually the consequence of an employee's lack of involvement with the business's goals and a sense that their ideas are not wanted or paid attention to. For the company, staff turnover raises as employees walk out of the entranceway for more interesting careers. " (Management today)

Despite being talked about, there's been little technological research into the marriage between satisfaction and efficiency and whether operatives are motivated so these are satisfied, beneficial or both.

The importance of motivation is clear and can be summarised in the following quotation

"Drive may be dened as the amount to which individuals commit work to achieve goals that they perceive as being important and advantageous" "Johnson, & Johnson, 2003

However, it is just a little unclear are the factors that encourage operatives, if the techniques applied by management are successful, and what the partnership is between satisfaction and efficiency.

Therefore the seeks for this research are to

-Understand what motivates structure operatives, by standing their needs, motivators and de-motivators.

-Establish what site managers understand motivates operatives, and compare whether they are of the same judgment as the operatives.

-Compare the conclusions of this research with prior research, and set up any differences in opinion

-Discuss the problem of satisfaction and production and establish when there is a relationship between the two


There are various ideas which endeavour to quantify what motivation is, all that happen to be partially true. However a generalised theory that pertains to all individuals in different circumstances has not yet been theorised.

It is not necessary to discuss all motivational ideas but it is however important to recognize that every one is different. This job will be extending on data analysed from prior research that was collected with regards to Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory. In addition, it raises key points in regards to problems with satisfaction and output, this where is from the work of Herzberg. This section will subsequently concentrate on the task of Maslow and Herzberg; other theories will be outlined briefly.

History of motivation

Motivation theories can be followed back over two decades ago to the works of progressive theorists such as Robert Owen, Jeremy Bentham, and Elton Mayo who commenced to analyze and implement principles of motivational theories, there whether it be different models.

Robert Owen believed that by caring and looking after the needs of his employee's they would become more reliable, useful and longer lasting. He exhibited pioneering management and ethical business guidelines which are actually widely accepted and implemented within human resources today. His strategies influenced infant education, the necessity for safer working methods, the co-operative movements, trade unionism, and garden locations. Jeremy Bentham views are widely known as the 'carrot and stick methodology', a metaphor relating to reward and penalties. Bentham assumed that everyone is self-interested, encouraged by the desirable outcome or avoiding an unpleasant one. Although theories of desire have been explored extensively since, encourage and punishment is still considered strong motivators in our culture today. Elton Mayo conducted various behavioural tests to explore ways of motivating personnel, from the study he conducted he figured staff weren't only motivated by pay, work conditions and moral but also subconscious and interpersonal factors. He also found that recognition and a sense of belonging are incredibly important and that an individual's frame of mind towards work is highly influenced by those around them.

Outline of theories

It is currently possible to separate motivation ideas into two categories, content ideas and process theories.

Content theories may also be known as need theories as they give attention to the importance of establishing what motivates us, seeking to identify the needs of individuals and so relating motivation to the fulfilling of these needs.

These theories are worried with determining people's needs, their comparative advantages and the goals they pursue in order to meet these needs (Mullins 2002). They include

Maslow' hierarchy of needs model

Herzberg's two-factor theory

Alderfer's modified need hierarchy model

McClelland's achievement motivation theory

McGregor's X and Y theory

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Abraham Maslow unveiled a hierarchy of needs in a newspaper written in 1943, called "A Theory of Individuals Inspiration". The hierarchy makes an attempt to demonstrate/propose factors that motivate an individual, Maslow suggested that people are determined to fulfil basic needs before moving on to other, more complex needs. The hierarchy is mostly shown in a pyramid format show in amount 1.

Figure 1- Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Model (Mullins, 2002 p427)

Maslow believes that people must first achieve physiological needs as they are vital for our success. They include the need for normal water, air, food and sleeping; these are classed as main needs as all other steps in the tier are extra until these needs are fulfilled.

Safety needs could also include factors that improve security; they aren't as demanding as the physiological needs. Once we can preserve ourselves (tier 1) it then becomes essential to ensure our protection/security, examples of this may be cover from weather, medical health insurance, machinery, vehicles etc.

Social needs include our natural desire to feel accepted; examples of this can be with family, human relationships or colleagues at work.

Esteem needs include emotions such as self-worth, achievement and social acceptance.

Self-actualisation needs symbolize the highest tier of the hierarchy and are needs concerned with self-fulfilment or personal development.

Maslow believed that all tier must be rather well satisfied before the needs of another tier become important to the average person, however Oldcorn (1989) advocates that individual's may well not satisfy the first need to move to the next until they reach the top of the hierarchy. He means that in reality we try to satisfy an assortment of various needs at anybody time. This can often be observed when folks are put under great pressure, sleeping and food (physiological needs) may be deprived to be able to complete a target or goal (esteem needs).

This discussion coincides with Wahba and Bridwell (1976) who reported that there is diminutive evidence to support the position of the needs or the hierarchical order, as his theory was difficult to test empirically; furthermore this recommended that there are several interpretations of his theory and the quality of his work has faded as time passes due to more recent publications by writers with more current views. However the values of the tiers continue to be, regardless of the overlapping of needs.

Herzberg's two-factor theory

Dr Frederick Herzberg conducted research in order to gain an understanding of what creates job satisfaction. Herzberg's to-factor theory claims there are certain factors in the workplace that cause satisfaction, and in turn different factors that induce dissatisfaction. Herzberg divided these factors into two categories, hygiene and motivator factors. Principally hygiene factors are necessary in ensuring that workers are not dissatisfied, whereas motivators are had a need to increase performance.

Motivators are thought to be factors such as challenging work, reputation, responsibility and personal expansion; elements Maslow explains as 'esteem needs'.

Hygiene factors are extrinsic, included in these are; job security, salary, fringe benefits and company guidelines; components of Maslow's higher-level needs. They don't provide positive satisfaction, however if they're not present this will create dissatisfaction.

There has since been criticism regarding the accuracy of the results concluded in Herzberg's theory,


Alderfer's revised need hierarchy model (ERG Theory)

Clayton Alderfer redefined Maslow's hierarchy and re-categorised it into three broader classes of needs. These include

Existence Needs

Relatedness Needs

Growth needs

McClelland's achievement determination theory

David McClelland was an American psychologist who conducted research to further the task of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory. McClelland completed research and tests to recognize the varying needs and motivators in a variety of people. His research recommended that these needs can be categorised into affiliation, electricity and achievement. Each of these needs influence inspiration within an individual, McClelland suggested these needs or motivators are attained over time and vary from person to person dependent on their life experiences.

Achievement can be explained as "a recurrent matter to stand out, to do better because of its own sake, for the intrinsic satisfaction to do better. " (McClelland, 1961).

The power motive can be defined as a "recurrent inclination or readiness for activities of experiencing impact, control, or impact over others and the world" (McClelland, 1975; Winter, 1973).

The affiliative motive has been defined as "the desire for establishing, maintaining, and restoring a good affective romance with another person or individuals" (Atkinson et al, 1954, p406).

McGregor's X and Y Theory

Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human drive, produced by Douglas McGregor in the 1960's. The theories summarize two opposing models of employee inspiration;

'X theory' proposes that employees are fundamentally idle and have no desire for reaching the organisations objectives, therefore management and path is essential in making certain the workforce operates productively. 'Y theory' still suggests that management are responsible, however McGregor proposes that management should show self-confidence in their workforce; providing employees the possibility to exercise creativity, imagination and ingenuity to be able to make a work environment where both management and subordinates promote co-operative objectives.

Weinbach, 2008 says that "A lot of people can handle responsibility, because creative imagination and ingenuity are common in the population"

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