Analysing the various Management Principles and Applications

The need for professional management came along with large size businesses from the commercial revolution. That is generally understood to hide the period from around 1760 to 1850 & in this time there was a major economic expansion. The section of labour, combined with technological innovations provided the monetary need for a stock system. The manufacturer system however, helped bring new problems for owners & managers.

There are various pioneers who contributed to the introduction of management, these include

F. W. Taylor (1856-1915) he was known as father of medical management, & was a specialist engineer.

H. L. Gantt (1861- 1919) his main interest was human beings in industry & he wished to build democratic societies in factories.

Abraham Maslow was a behavioural psychologist who performed in academia and industry. He published various catalogs on human relations. The first book was on Inspiration and Personality & lay out the needs of the individual & they are still hugely important factors today.

Definitions of Management

There is no generally accepted description of management, however, the best definition is said to be that of Henri Fayol (1841-1925) who was simply a French Engineer, as right now the principles remain the same.

'To deal with is to forecast and plan, to organise, to command word, to coordinate and also to control. ' H. Fayol (1916)

Henri Fayol's explanation of management is situated upon his original proven fact that forecasting & planning was about looking to the future & creating a course of action to allow aims to be achieved. Organising was seen in structural terms while commanding was thought to refer to maintaining activity amidst workers. Coordinating is a unifying activity which effectively allows all parts of an activity to work in harmony & finally handling meant, ensuring things are done relative to established requirements & guidelines etc. Henri Fayol therefore is accountable for identifying the key points of management which are the following & are further complete in task 2 of this assignment.

Forecasting

Planning

Organisation

Command (Motivating)

Controlling

Co-ordinating and communicating

Another definition is that of Edward Brech the previous of the management pioneers. He believed that management was for the good of population and integrity was its cornerstone. He collated ideas, added his own & developed training programs & textbooks

'Management is a social process. . . the process consists of. . . planning, control, coordination and desire'. EFL Brech (1957)

Another explanation is that of Harold Koontz & Cyril O'Donnell, both professors of business management at the School of California.

Management can be an operational process at first best dissected by analysing the managerial functions. . . The five essential managerial functions (are): planning, organising, staffing, directing and leading and controlling. ' Koontz & O'Donnell (1984)

The explanations of Brech & Koontz & O'Donnell are based after that of Henri Fayol nonetheless they have made some small changes, for example Henri Fayol's term order is changes to motivation by Brech & directing or leading by Koontz & O'Donnell.

P2 Clarify the guidelines and operations of management.

A manager's job includes planning, organising, directing & controlling a company's resources which include the labor force, equipment, money, facilities & materials etc. Management also includes the taking & storing of facts & information for later use or for the utilization of others within the organisation to assist them with their own objectives. Management isn't just limited by 'professionals' & 'supervisors' as every member or worker is responsible to some extent for 'handling their own functions as part of their job.

The main rules of management identified by Fayol are the following

Forecasting

Planning

Organisation

Motivating

Controlling

Co-ordinating and communicating

Within any business or company a administrator has many assignments & duties & there job requires that they have the many of these skills to fulfill the role of 'manager'.

Forecasting

Forecasting can be involved with the future economics of any company or organisation. This calls for decisions being designed to steer the business or company in the right route & these decisions will be based upon forecasts by the management. These can include financial forecasts like the twelve-monthly turnover of the company & certain requirements of funding to allow the company to invest in their jobs. Forecasts may also be with regards to the business's workload therefore permitting them to forecast the required resources i. e. labour.

Planning

Planning involves the future co-ordination of projecting & handling of resources. Many decisions made in regarding planning depends upon the business's forecasts as discussed previously; however planning will also be done on every individual project. This involves the making of decisions which will permit the company or organisation to meet the demands with their clients & ensure that the goals of the business enterprise are met. The primary objective of the business is to make profit, therefore every individual project will be prepared & organised at length & will be directly managed & watched to make sure it is relocating the right path, thus ensuring that the clients demands are met & that their objectives are found.

Organisation

Organisation consists of the agreement of the company structure while establishing relationships & resources that may allow the company's objective's to be achieved. Any company or organisation will demand that all of these specific departments are prepared appropriately to allow them to function & meet their demands. A manager's job is to define every individual within their division with their own jobs & obligations while making certain each of them meet their requirements in accordance with any technical specs & timescales while making certain they are simply coordinated with any relevant site structured activities.

Motivation

This is the process to increase the physiological express of morale within the workforce of a company. A company's most important advantage is its employees, therefore it could be said that the desire of the employees is essential. The identifiable needs of an employee include

To be paid reasonably to permit them a comfortable quality lifestyle.

To be cured as an individual while being recognized as a crucial area of the team.

To have a reasonable sense of security in their job.

To be allowed the opportunity to show their potential & effort.

Having a socially suitable job with a sense of belonging and popularity, allowing a higher self esteem.

Having the opportunity to progress within the company.

An employee's motivational needs is what that particular employee needs are in order to help keep them happy in their job, thus allowing them to perform to the best of their capacity. Several needs may also be more important than others which a director should have the capability to detect & fulfil, for example, an employee might believe that they must be recognised as an important person in the team as this might boost their self confidence. Once their confidence is boosted their motivational needs are therefore satisfied. There are many ways in which company's work at achieving the motivational needs of their employees all together & these include the benefits of bonus strategies and provision of good welfare facilities etc.

Controlling

Controlling refers to the continuous observation of any project to ensure that the task is completed & is continuing as it was initially planned. Should it be pointed out that the job is not progressing as per organized corrective action will be studied to rectify this. Controlling is the tactical spear of the management & includes checking the existing achievements with pre-determined targets. Controlling may include

The control of the projects overall budget.

The control of monetary payments for the way to obtain materials & services.

Controlling the improvement of the job.

Co-ordination

Coordination is crucial to ensure that all team or office involved with a task works in tranquility to ensure that the task is completed with the least possible problems throughout the length of time of the project. The coordination of management requires regular communication typically in the form of meetings to integrate ideas into action. Co-ordination isn't just crucial between the management & employees in any one company, it is crucial that there is co-ordination between all parties involved in a project. This is difficult specifically in large range projects where for example the Client, Architect, Volume Surveyor, Builder & Sub-Contractors etc must all work together to ensure that the task is completed efficiently. This is where good management is vital to ensure the co-ordination between all of these parties.

Communication

Communication is to probably the single most important aspect within any company & in particular any construction task as good communication is crucial as it ensures the coordination and control of people, categories and departments not only within one company or company but also within the rest of the get-togethers who may be engaged with a project. Communication ensures control of a company's strategies and methods & that any instructions directed at personnel by the management are evidently realized. Poor communication can result in ineffective control, poor coordination and undoubtedly management failure that may ultimately lead to a failure to meet a company's targets i. e. a lack of money.

Often, communication can be hindered by simple obstacles including the use of different phrases & expressions between get-togethers. Different languages may also pose problems in international deals, while modern communication methods such as e-mails etc may be misrepresented. In the construction industry in particular there is a slight gain as much of the communication is done by the use of specific drawings which represent the same to every individual regardless of what their words may be.

P3 Explain the motivational needs of people and groups, management styles and ideas of team working.

Motivation

Motivation is principally worried about

The makes that stimulate real human behaviour.

The factors that channel & direct this behaviour.

The manner in which this behavior can be managed or taken out.

Motivation is crucial in every workplaces regardless of the mother nature of work carried out. Keeping employees highly encouraged is the key to a successful workplace. A worker who's happy, satisfied & determined in their job will inevitably be more productive than a worker who has little or no motivation. There have been various motivation theories but all with the same motives. A highly motivated workforce is eventually more profitable & this can help to increase labour outputs therefore lowering costs which will in turn make more profit for the business enterprise. Motivation not only increases the level of work but also the quality, therefore having a huge group of highly encouraged employees can have a positive influence on any business.

People can be determined in various different ways & this will be centered upon their specific needs & requirements. For example, one staff may become more motivated when you are given the possibility to use their own effort, while another staff may become more motivated by the chance of bonus schemes. Arranging work related goals is another approach to motivating employees as they are more likely to be fruitful if indeed they have a concentrate on to work toward whereas If an activity has no concentrate on it may cause worker to feel dissatisfied therefore they'll be less determined.

There have been various pioneers of management theories throughout the years. Amongst them are those by Frederick Herzberg, who assumed that the main element motivators were achievements, recognition, growth and job interest. Others include John Adair, Peter Drucker, Elton Mayo & Victor Vroom.

As was briefly explained in activity 1 of the assignment Maslow wrote a book predicated on human relations. In the reserve he composed about the factors which drive or motivate people. Once an organization or individuals needs are satisfied, they will never be determined by the same benefits as generally humans all ways expect more. Maslow's survey shows to be able to achieve good results from the personnel and in a position to complete our new proposed building successfully we'd have to ensure the employee's needs are catered for and their problems are being paid attention to.

Maslow described five purchases of needs which can be the following

Physiological- The essential survival requirements of friendliness, shelter and food

Security- Protection from threat of threat

Social- Relations with others, indicated as companionship comradeship or love

Self-Respect- Sense of personal worthy of, esteem and autonomy

Self-Actualisation- Sense of reaching your full potential

A more recent and modern way was from Sheila Ritchie and Peter Martin who developed a theory in the later 1990's that started under the assumption that it was a manager's task to discover what motivates their labor force. They identified twelve motivational drivers including, the human being needs for interesting work, a variety in work, achievements, power, self development, creativity, affect, sociable contact, money and perks, structure and rules, long term connections & good working conditions.

The idea was based on having a way of motivation for every single employee as it was based on the fact that each individual had different motivators therefore should have their own motivators used with them. For instance, if a worker has worked well & achieved more when targets are set, then your manager should take the time to ensure the employee know very well what was expected of them all the time. However, this technique is not always going to be practical & many companies simply use motivation schemes which are aimed at all employees. These can include incentives such as more time off or bonus deals in purchase exceeding their targets. Many company's also utilize team building times which can be also aimed to increase motivation within the workforce. These days out can range from activities to night time meals all payed for by the company.

Leadership Styles

There are various different varieties of leadership found in the workplace & this will change dependent upon the workforce in general, for example, when there is an assortment of non-skilled & skilled employees, each of these groups may desire a different style of leadership to totally stimulate them & gain the best from them & there will of course be considered a difference upon individuals. The main authority styles are thought as

Autocratic

An autocratic leader serves as a one who simply issues purchases to their workforce & needs everyone to comply.

Democratic

A democratic head manages by discussion with their workforce & encourages every individual to get involved, therefore creating a team approach at work.

There have been various studies when it comes to management & authority, for example Rensis Likert (1903-1981) an North american psychologist & statistician conducted research on human behaviour within different types of company during his research he studied different styles of leadership & identified four main types of management system the following.

Exploitive / Authoritative System.

Decisions are imposed on employees.

Employees are determined through threats i. e. the increased loss of their job.

High levels of management have great responsibility.

There is no responsibility for low levels of management.

Poor communication & teamwork.

Consultative System

The leadership will have some trust in their employees.

Motivation is gained by rewards & with involvement in the decision making.

There is a varying level of responsibility total degrees of management.

There is some communication & teamwork.

Participative - Group System

The command have full self-assurance in their employees.

Motivation is gained via economical reward gained through joint focuses on being satisfied.

All employees feel that they have a responsibility for the company's targets.

Good communication & team work tales place.

Benevolent / Authoritative System

Leadership via expert / servant trust.

Motivation is gained by the provision of rewards i. e. pay boosts.

Levels of management have great responsibility.

There is not any responsibility for low degrees of management.

Poor communication & teamwork.

The style a head adopts depends upon their perception with their workers drive for example, do workers have to be driven autocratically and encouraged by wage increases or are they better encouraged by being permitted to voice their ideas & help out with your choice making.

A command style's success will depend on the circumstances the first choice is in, for example if the leader is under great pressure it could be more good for use an autocratic style of command. How close workers are could also have an effect, for example a team of personnel who have proved helpful together for a long period may become more motivated when you are involved in the making of decisions. The method of leadership implemented should be carefully regarded as control styles can also have an effect on employee motivation.

Team Working

Team working can be beneficial in many circumstances at work. This allows for additional ideas to be produced & more feedback to be received by the management. Team working also permits greater coordination of works while allowing individuals to use their talents in place of other team member's weaknesses.

Merit Criteria

Schools of Management

During the past due 19th & early on 20th generations, management theory was developed & was categorized as either medical management or administrative management & lots of the techniques & ideas are still used in modern management.

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