Business and Marketing Examination Techniques

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Business strategy entails seeking a posture within an environment or industry that generates a lasting competitive advantages (implying a diversified company must have as many business strategies as it includes businesses)

Analysing Macro - Environmental Factors:

There are numerous factors that will influence the strategies and decisions of professionals of any company. Taxes changes, new regulations, trade obstacles, demographic change, etc are some of the examples. To help analyse these factors, we can categorise these micro - environmental factors using PESTEL model. PESTEL abbreviates Political, inexpensive, social, technological, environmental and legal factors.

Political Factors: These refer to government policy including the degree of involvement in the economy. What goods and services will a authorities want to provide? To what extent would it believe in subsidising firms? What exactly are its priorities in terms of business support? Etc

Economical Factors: Included in these are interest rates, taxation changes, monetary progress, inflation and exchange rates etc.

Social Factors: Changes in social trends can impact on the demand for a firm's products and the availableness and willingness of people to work. For example, in UK, the population has been ageing. It has increased the costs for organizations who are focused on pension payments because of their employees because their staff are living longer.

Technological factors: Technology is growing very fast nowadays. New and fast machineries are created once in a while. New technologies create new products and new operations. Technology can reduce costs, improve quality and business lead to invention. These developments may benefit consumers as well as the organisations providing the products.

Environmental factors: Environmental factors include weather and weather change in macro factors. Change in weather, temperature can effect on many establishments. These can advantage one industry and can make other industry down at exactly the same time. For example in hot sunlit days, people like to venture out and visit beaches rather than heading to restaurants and places like them. With major weather changes occurring due to global warming and with better environmental recognition this exterior factor is now a significant issue for organizations to consider.

Legal Factors: They are related to the legal environment in which companies operate. The release of age discrimination and impairment discrimination legislation, a rise in the minimum wage and greater requirements for companies to recycle are types of relatively recent regulations that influence an organisation's actions.

LIFE CYCLE Evaluation:

Generally, the model assumes that industry progress follows an 'S' molded curve. The flat introductory phase displays the problems of creating the new product. Once proven, expansion becomes explosive until market saturation is come to. Sales now are tied to the pace of replacement unit sales and the pace of growth of the population in the market. Eventually the industry will come under great pressure from newer systems and replace products with superior price performance.

There are four levels in this model. i. e. benefits stage, growth level, maturity level and decline stage. In introduction level, Pioneering businesses often after sizeable investment and repeated failures, bring in products based on a fresh technology. Costs have a tendency to be high, and quality is commonly low because of insufficient economies of range or making experience and the merchandise itself will be very basic. In progress stage, a dominant technology begins to emerge, and opponents standardise around it. There is certainly likelihood of capacity shortages although costs and prices fall season as standardisation and the adoption of large range manufacturing makes possible economies of range. At maturity stage, Overcapacity begins to emerge on the market, products differentiation declines as technological know-how becomes broadly distributed, and price competition intensifies. Consolidation occurs within the industry as weaker firms are bought by more robust ones. Sales to less developed market segments, and the transfer of production to lessen labour cost economies accelerates. In decrease level, The industry comes under pressure from new technology offering superior performance, although this can be reduced by factors such as high price and switching costs from the new technology. Price wars erupt as the surviving businesses fight for market show in a declining market, and exits from the industry, as well as consolidation within the industry, becomes more likely.

Analysing Micro - Environmental Factors:

The micro - environment contains stakeholders who are immediately or indirectly linked with any business. For instance customers, consumers, suppliers, shareholders etc.

Suppliers: Suppliers are major pillars or any business as they provide all the materials needed for any business. Big deal with suppliers is that can they offer high quality products at low price. Can they do that reliably? Have they received the versatility to react to a firm's demands? What's the bargaining vitality of the suppliers? How dependent is the company on them? Will their approach to their staff and resources match your ethics? Firms must decide on issues such as who to use to supply them, on the duty it takes for these suppliers and on the conditions and conditions it adopts. Some companies take quite an intense frame of mind towards their suppliers by trying to push down the prices and delay obligations. Others view the relationship more as a relationship in which they will work together with suppliers and this by helping the other person both may benefit. The need for suppliers can be seen if things go wrong.

Distributors: Distributor's job is to deliver your product to market place where it could be sell easily. Visualize you sell shampoo - what you ought to sell this is to get it on the shelves in the main chemists and supermarkets but this implies moving someone else's products off of the shelves! So the obstacle is to get stores to stock your products; this may be attained by good negotiating skills and offering appropriate incentives. The marketers used will determine the final price of the product and exactly how it is shown to the finish customer. When advertising via retailers, for example, the shop has control over where the products are viewed, that they are priced and exactly how much they can be promoted in-store.

Customers: Customers are key to sales. Professionals must keep the needs of customers in their brain and try to predict how these will develop so that they can meet these requirements effectively now and in the foreseeable future. To help understand their customers firms are increasingly attempting to gather home elevators them through mechanisms such as commitment credit cards. By gathering data on shopping patterns and corresponding this to data on the average person shoppers firms can build up detailed pictures with their buyers and then offer them appropriate discounts.

Competition: The success and behavior of any business will depend on the degree of competition in its market. In some markets one organization is dominant. This is called a monopoly. If you are in a monopoly position this might allow you to exploit the consumer with relatively high prices (assuming your position is protected in some way) and you may be in a position to offer a substandard service if customers have no other selections. In other markets a few organizations dominate; this kind of market framework is named an oligopoly. In oligopolistic market segments there's a high amount of interdependence and so firms will be cautious how their competitors might respond to any actions they take.

Key Stakeholders, Their Needs & Goals:

Key stakeholders of an business are

  • Employees
  • Customers, suppliers and contractors
  • Shareholders
  • Investors
  • Communities
  • Government

Employees: will be the major stakeholders of the business as they are strongly linked with the business. They want to work in a location where they can meet their personal needs and wishes. Leaders who create job projects, work conditions, and visions help employees be both experienced and focused on their work.

Customers: want market leaders to build persuasive products and services so that they can trust and when they actually, customers gives share of pocket. Customers are key to sales. Especially in junk food sectors like Burger Ruler, we ( employees ) have been instructed to give attention to quality service and food. Customers should be satisfied no matter what because without them, business is little or nothing. Suppliers and contractors want their dedicated concern with payment of goods and earnings respectively.

Shareholders and Buyers: are those who bought company's talk about and are part of ownership in the business. They are nervous about maximum final result in terms of cash from profit. Buyers are those who make investments their money in to the business as capital to earn their show from the income. Investors want leaders to keep their pledges, develop a convincing growth strategy, align central competencies to the strategy and then to ensure that folks are focused on delivering on these premises.

Communities and Administration: Neighborhoods want leaders to create organizations that are socially in charge, through that they treat the environment and how they serve the bigger community. Government are associated with business as to get started on a company, licence is required and government issue licence. And from the income gained with a company, a percentage of profit would go to government in conditions of duty which can be used to construct infrastructures etc.

C) Summation:

The Burger King Organization (BKC) was founded in 1954 in Miami by Wayne Mc Lamore and David Edgerton. Following this, the famous Whopper sandwich was created in 1957 and it quickly became one of the best-known sandwiches on earth. Today, with the corporation's brand assurance: 'Have it your way', there are 221, 184 possible ways to order a Whopper sandwich around the world. Burger Ruler now operates more than 11, 300 restaurants in about 70 countries. Food is necessary for humans to make it through, however the wastes, chemical substance by-products, and inefficiencies in its creation can come with an immense effect on the surroundings. People demand perfect inexpensive all year round food, which escalates the use of pesticides, herbicides, and preservatives depleting the precious ozone, contributing to global warming, and polluting our lakes and streams. To help safeguarding all the dangerous fumes and chemicals, Burger Ruler is doing it's best. To greatly help prevent contaminants and other dangerous things, there are independent containers for various things. Strategy is damaged by major changes occurring in the environment as well as for those changes, strategy has to be change accordingly to be able in which to stay business stream. Some change in micro - environmental factors will have an effect on strategy in various ways. If business is sacrificing customers then many strategies can be applied depending on degree of business damage. Prices of product can be lowered, or distribution of vouchers etc. One of Burger King's most significant jobs is to ensure that the business is continually reaching its customers' needs. To be able to achieve this, the organisation has a research and development team dedicated to product improvement. It's mono is ' HAVE IT YOUR WAY'. This means that customers can have their food just how they want, with or without, more or less of anything in their food.




The competitive structure of a company can be analysed by Porter's five causes research. It analyse the elegance of an company within the market. Porter's five forces model is
Likelihood of new entrance: it means that the extents to which barriers to entry exist. The likelihood of entering market would be lower if

  • The entry cost are high
  • There are major advantages of those organizations which are already working in market because of experience
  • Government insurance policies prevent admittance or helps it be more difficult
  • Existing brands have advanced of loyalty

Power of customers: The better the energy of buyers within an industry the much more likely it is that they will have the ability to pressure down prices and decrease the profits of companies that provide the product. Buyer vitality will be higher if

  • There are few or many buyer of the product
  • The potential buyers can easily switch to other products provided high quality in low price

Power of suppliers: The more powerful the energy of suppliers within an industry the more challenging it is for businesses within that sector to make a income because suppliers can determine the terms and conditions which business is conducted. Suppliers could be more powerful if they are less in amount and the distributor can threaten to buy the firm so that it is a more robust negotiation position.

Degree of rivalry: This measures the amount of competition between existing firms. The higher the amount of rivalry the more challenging it is made for existing firms to generate high profits. Rivalry will be higher if there are large numbers of similar sized organization, the costs of going out of the industry are high, and there is little brand commitment so customer are likely to switch easily between products.

Substitute risk: This measures the easiness with which potential buyers can switch to some other product that does indeed a similar thing e. g. aluminium cans rather than cup or plastic containers. The simple switching depends on what costs would be involved. Using Porter's model, firms can make high revenue if the industry is

  • Difficult to enter
  • There is limited rivalry
  • Buyers are relatively weak
  • Suppliers are relatively weak
  • There are few substitutes


The Boston Matrix model is a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms with their market probable, and in so doing implying proper action for products and services in each category.

Cash Cow: The rather crude metaphor is based on the thought of 'milking' the earnings from previous purchases which established good circulation and market share for the merchandise. Products in this quadrant need maintenance and cover activity, as well as good cost management, not development effort, because there is little or no additional development available.

Dog: this is the fact service or product of an company which includes low occurrence in market. There is no point of developing goods and services in this quadrant. A lot of the companies discontinue their product that they think fall under this quadrant. Businesses which may have been starved or denied development end up with a high or entire proportion of their products in this quadrant, which is obviously not so funny in any way, except to the challengers.

Problem Child: They are products that have a huge and growing market probable, but existing low market talk about, normally because they're new products, or the application has not been discovered and acted after yet. New business development and task management principle are essential here to ensure these products' potential can be realised and disasters prevented. This is likely to be a location of business that is quite competitive, where in fact the pioneers take the hazards in the desire of obtaining good early syndication preparations, image, reputation and market talk about.

Rising Legend: 'star' products, are those which have good market show in a solid and growing market. As something goes into this category it is commonly known as a 'growing star'. Whenever a market is strong and still growing, competition is not yet fully established. Demand is strong; saturation or over-supply do not is available, and so costing is relatively unhindered.

SWOT Research:

To know what a company's strategy should be, the professionals must consider the inner durability and weaknesses of the company and compare them with external opportunities and menace. This process is recognized as SWOT examination.

Strengths: are internal factors which a firm may build to develop a strategy. They may include

  • Marketing strengths
  • Financial strengths
  • Operation strengths
  • HRM strengths

Weaknesses: are internal factors which a company may need to protect itself such as

  • Marketing weaknesses such as limited distribution
  • Financial weaknesses such as high degrees of borrowing and low rates of return
  • Operational weaknesses such as old or low quality equipments
  • HRM weaknesses such as higher rate of labour turn over and professional disputes


To achieve a target, managers must create a suitable strategy. A strategy is a long term plan aiming how a target will be come to. For example, if the objective is to lessen costs, the strategy could require relocating or reducing the labour power. If the objective is to boost revenue, the strategy may be to start new products in order to invest in a large promotional campaign. A technique may be produced by by using a firm's talents to exploit the opportunities that exist. For example, a solid brand name may be used to increase a firm's products into new marketplaces. It could also use these strengths to safeguard itself against hazards; for example, a merchant might use its finance to obtain key locations to avoid a rival buying them. Strategies can be assessed by many ways. One of the way is by using Porter's Five Forces model. With this model there are five different options which are highly connected with the business plus they must be kept in mind while making strategies. While making strategy for a company includes keeping those things in mind that will ruin the business. For example in case of a retail business, if a new retail business entered in, then strategy in this will be change consequently in cases like this. Secondly if buyer's ability is strong in retail business, then maybe it's a poor or a good impact on business. If they're strong then they can induce down the prices of the product which will lower the earnings, so in this case strategy will be assessed very carefully as every step can transform the course of business. Suppliers will be the major part of any business so keeping them at heart is a necessary part in strategy evaluation. A firm may also want to protect itself against its weaknesses. For example, it may look for alternative suppliers to lessen an over-reliance on a specific one; it could choose rebranding exercise to reposition itself. Fourth part is amount of rivalry. This actions the amount of competition between existing organizations. The higher the amount of rivalry the more challenging it is ideal for existing firms to create high gains. Fifth and previous part is risk of substitute. This measures the convenience with which clients can switch to another product that does a similar thing. Keeping following things in mind will help effecting business in loss. If the second industry is not hard to type in market, if there is a high degree of rivalry between businesses within industry, buyers are strong, suppliers are strong etc. The implication of Porter's examination for professionals is that they should examine these five factors before choosing a business to move into. They also needs to consider ways of changing the five factors to make sure they are more favourable.


Evaluating strategies is a hard task but putting into action them in a normal and soft manner is more complicated. The importance of strategy should not be underestimated. Changing the price tag on an item, changing the distribution strategy and investing in new equipment are all important decisions but if you are fighting with each other in the wrong market with the incorrect products then the details are almost irrelevant. The strategy places out where and how the battles will be fought and a good strategy is essential to business success. This calls for an understanding not only of what happens within the company but also the capability to forecast changes in the exterior environment and their relevance successfully.

This implementation is in fact a landmark where various organizations tend to falter. The considerable research and resources consumed for the drafting of tactical strategies often make organizations assume that whatever they have got grasped and devised is the optimum and therefore requires no second thoughts. However, what has been disregarded is the fact that strategies can be tested only if they meet real use. Only planning or theoretical application cannot be make sure complete success. Real implementation yields the real picture. An enterprise plan is the textual version of a technique, as it offers pertinent information regarding the company, including: vision and mission assertions, measurable objectives assisting the vision, actionable tactics reaching the target, resources, milestones and timeframes, accountability and role designations, as well as internal and external dangers. The business strategy is not evergreen and really should be evaluated regularly to guarantee the company still gets the competitive advantage.

A business plan includes the primary and secondary aims of your company, an evaluation of current regulations and steps, and the introduction of new procedures or procedures to correct weaknesses within the organization.

Strategy is firstly introduced to lessen managers and supervisors so they can act onto it and tell to lower staff in order to focus on it. If starting a new product or reducing the price of another product because of replacement available in market, all the personnel should be aware of that, after that the new promotion or product or marked down product will be advertise within an attractive way in Television, radio and by distributing leaflets to let people aware of it. Focussing on excellent customer support will definitely help enhance the business because the service directed at customer will bring him again.

Quality assurance of the merchandise will increase the demand of product and will increase revenue. Adding new and most advanced technology in the company will save a lot of time and give effect considerably faster and effective. Supplying training to all new and old staff about new technology, new products, and everything related to business and plan will help staff delivering a better quality service required.

For execution of plan, money is the major and important resource required. So in order to get money there are numerous ways, selling stocks of the company, retained profit, profit in terms of capital can be reinvested and by firmly taking loans from banking companies etc. After implementing the plan, await the result and do research. Drop or put small questionnaire that will help letting you know how good is the strategy heading. Taking customer's opinions and evaluate the strategy. If it is going the way we needed, then there is no need to improve and whether it's not, then re evaluate and check where there's a mistake and sort out it out.

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