Classical school of thought or the traditional management approach is the oldest schools of management methods. It was began surrounding the twentieth century when personnel and organisations managers started out having misunderstandings between themselves. It had been the initiative of some recognized managers that led to the Classical procedure when they observed the necessity for change and improvement in the manner management and staff conduct their daily business was necessary. One of the distinguished managers was Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) who was known as the daddy of classical management.
Some of the problems encountered throughout that time were that most the personnel were non-English speaking immigrant, so training them in British language became problems, communication problem brought on a lot whereby staff are unsatisfied with the management and management were unhappy with the employees attitude with their work and these cause reduction in productivity.
According to Daft and Marcic they provide that the reason for the inefficiencies in creation was from the management rather than the workers therefore therefore changes are needed from the most notable of the organisation hierarchy to the bottom in other to improve productivity.
In order to resolve these problems which are affecting production, and get work heading, the managers started out researching to solve these problems, and fulfill the workers? The managers started trying different assessments and researches that finally delivered the classical school of thought.
There are three different branches developed by the traditional management school, the foremost is the scientific school and the second is administrative institution and lastly the Beauraucratic College. . The primary reason and characteristic of these three branches was the rationality of the employees, people choose to work for their economic reward, and devotion is not the reason why individuals are doing work for but the economic bonuses and also what gives them the best monetary benefit. So therefore any manager who would like to have the best out of their personnel needed to consider their economic wants. This research was based on pessimistic view of real human nature. "Classical methodology recognized human thoughts buy felt a logical and rational structuring of jobs and work could control real human emotions. "
(Sridhar M. et al, 2004, pp4)
The Three categories of Classical University of Management
The Scientific school theory was developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, the idea is dependant on the believe you can find "one easiest way" to execute a job and the technological methods may be used to determine that "one best way".
By the convert 20th Century managers had concerns in the output and efficiency of the labor force. Managers believed at the time that it was necessary to give workers certain duties and the right tools to maximise their capability to fulfil specific duties. He reviewed two different methods that people work and the structure of the organisation. Taylor broke down just how people work into smaller parts which he called "therbligs". He recommended that if staff understand their are better, then you might significantly train those to do what the work exactly required. Around the organisation framework He discussed that defining the work need, training to the duty of that job, seek the services of the best trained, promote on a single basis, and also have a strong and clear hierarchy. Taylor's purpose was to directly link skill and productivity to pay. He assumed that if company have skilled workers and are properly applied, productivity should follow.
Taylor's contribution to methodical management was predicated on an test he performed with chopping of metal into a research. He experiment with shovel, by using different type of shovel for use with different materials which the workers may use for the whole day. He reduced the number of folks shovelling at the Bethlehem Metal Work from 500 to 140. This is a success and his studies on the handing of pig flat iron, greatly contributed to the evaluation of work design.
Another contributor of the clinical management is Henri Fayol (1841-1925). A French engineer, he based mostly his own analysis on the Managing Director and worked well downwards. Fayol's theory was predicated on "basic theory of administration" (managementstudyguide. com). Fayol on the other hands did not think that there was a couple of amounts of ways to control the organisation and its employees; he built an individual observation and experience of what proved helpful well in terms of company. However he suggested fourteen ideas of management.
Some of these ideas will be reviewed below.
Division of Work - He suggested that specialisation of specific build-up experience and continuously boosts his skills. Thereby he can become more productive.
Authority - Command line and responsibility must be balanced
Discipline - Employees must obey authority while authority must give good authority. I really believe it is a good way of respecting both factors and providing investigations and balance.
Unity of Command line - One manager to one staff, I believe this will help to avoid discord of order and decision making
Unity of Route - Same group of men and women with the same target should be led in same manner.
Subordination of individual interest - Goals of the company must be paramount to managers.
Remuneration - Fayol advised that good remuneration to employees will motivate these to work harder.
Scalar Chain - Hierarchy is necessary for unity of way. But lateral communication is also important.
Initiative - Employees should be given chance to use their own effort. When employees brings right means to fix solving a difficulty, they should not be rejected by managers, since it demoralises.
Equity - Organisations should bring justice, fairness and kindness to employees during dispute among employees.
Stability of Tenure of Employees - Job security and career progression is needed to motivate employees.
Order - Both materials order and interpersonal order are necessary to build loyalty and self-assurance in employees.
Esprit de Corps - Management must foster morale of its employees.
I can still see some of the Fayol's concepts around today despite that they have been deemed outdated by a few of today's managers. In my understanding I believe that these principles were not obsolete but were built upon and modernized by today's professionals to meet today's organisation design and management requirements.
Max Weber (1864-1920).
""Bureau" is a French word that simply means Office or an office if you want to expand it. This is one way Max Weber explained his notion of Bureaucracy. it is a guideline conducted from the table or office. He defined that the most rational and best company framework would be the main one run from the office. He thinks that organisation needs to run with stringent rules for rules to run effectively.
Max bureaucracy helped in eradicating business love, personal interest etc that exists in the organisations.
This specific mother nature of bureaucracy and it is appraised as its special virtue. The more complicated and particular modern culture becomes a lot more its external supporting apparatus. Bureaucracy offers the frame of mind "demanded by exterior equipment of modern culture in the most favourable mixture. "
(Weber M. et al 1948)
Another approach was the human being relation approach who was started around 1924 by some sets of analysts like Elton Mayo, Clair Turner and so many more. Human relations approach requires a different view to Classical management, it recognises that individual have emotional needs that needs to be met. These individuals factors became what are known as the "human relationships university of management".
"Cary. L. Cooper, 2010, summarises that real human relations school of thought emerged to existence around 1930s as a response from the mechanistic view and the pessimistic view of human being nature advised by the traditional approach. "
Two principals theorist of individual relationships management are Abraham Maslow and Douglas McGregor.
Abraham Maslow's Contribution
Abraham Maslow identified five pieces of goal which might be considered as individuals need or want. They are really: Safety, Physiological, love, esteem and self-actualization. These individual needs are established by Maslow matching to their level of importance. That is called Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Physiological Need - Maslow explained that physiological of people were the first needed to be satisfied for folks to be happy. Physiological need is the principal need of men and women before all the needs. The day to day needs such as breathing, food, water, love-making and so on. Without food no lifetime because I believe anyone will think about food before security or occupation.
Safety Needs - Security need employs the physiological need. Safety needs according to Maslow are needs that free folks from threats and danger. A number of the examples of safety needs in the current organizations are items like life insurance, medical care insurance, workers compensation, earnings and many more. If a person is sick he's very worried that you will see some salary continuance until he's okay to come back to work.
Love/Belonging Needs - The third individuals need is love and be loved, belonging to an association, be suitable to others. When these needs are attained then people feel guaranteed, sense of belonging.
Esteem Need - Maslow explained that people have to be self-confidence, independence, recognised and be well known by peers.
Self-Actualization Need - Maslow summarises that once a person has attained the proceeding needs that is when one is with the capacity of being. It really is so difficult to accomplish these five stages but Maslow emphasised that everyone should attain to reach their full probable.
Douglas Mcgregor Contribution
Douglas Mcgregor in his own contribution to human relations management asserts that there are two collections of particular assumptions about human which is called Theory X and Theory Y.
Theory X Assumption (Authoritarian style)
Douglas McGregor Theory X says that the average human being comes with an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he is able to. He said that employees would show little interest in the tasks at hand
Douglas McGregor in his theory assumes that employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if indeed they can.
Because employees are lazy they need to be closely supervised and supervised
People stay away from duties, and want security above everything.
Theory Y Assumption (Participative Management style)
Work should be as natural as play
People are allowed to use their effort to pursuit organisation objectives, without external control or threat of punishment.
People want to take responsibility
Some Characteristics of the theory X managers referred to by Douglas McGregor
Demand, never ask
Distance and detached
Does not participate
Unconcerned about personnel welfare
Some Characteristics of the theory Y managers identified by Douglas McGregor
They are reverse of all the characteristics of theory X managers listed above
Classical Management methodology and Human Relationships Approach
In my very own understanding I can conclude that Traditional method of management is more superior to the human relationships method of management due to the fact the human relationships approach to management has been abused in recent times, some people end up at the top management of business organisations that they did not need but through favours and romance ties which exist in human relations approach. It has caused a whole lot of damage than good, experienced brains are not really controlling the organisation any more, favour and connections have eroded this.
I asked myself why do we get all of this sub-standard products on our market racks today, the answer is the real human relations approach of management that is more in organisations today. We find products failing on the field today, company are spending millions in training and advertising, this money can be used to invest in the business enterprise, from reliable statistics we find out an incredible number of production time lost every day in this country credited to human relations approach. Company has forgotten that we now have no loyal employees; people are only working because of the profit they get from it.
The present challenging financial condition nowadays has opened the eyes of some managers to see these areas and bring back sanity into organisations. Organisations are more or less yielding to the classical approach by slicing job, getting rid of unproductive elements in the company; non-performing staffs are getting rid of their careers, cost lowering, employees only get what they are entitled to, no unnecessary bonus deals are paid. As a non-business owner you might not get these exact things, it is approximately separating business from associations.
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