Modern industrial venture is an wide open technical and financial public system. Its talk about and development are firmly affected by the exterior environment, which suffers doubt, dynamism and unpredictability. It can help to develop the correct long-term strategy of group conduction. Therefore, the challenge of industrial businesses version to changes in the surroundings acquires special importance and
relevance. The adequacy of economical patterns and managerial decisions of the business market requirements is becoming decisive factor in its successful long-term development. It really is known that in developed countries, a proper approach to
management now has a reasonably broad circulation and has become a key point in creating a higher long-term efficiency and competitiveness.
According to Charles H. Green (2010), growth strategy is focused on the use of available market opportunities. Work with the old product in the old market does not require new knowledge and skills in virtually any part of marketing, not in technology. Therefore, the strategy of widening sales of manufactured product markets has recently involved little risk. At the same time, this plan is difficult to put into action in already developed market segments that are in the stage of maturity. Associated with that the growth of sales in adult market segments requires weaning customers from competitors. Conquest of the same faithful customers to competition may require significant financial outlay. A bit more dangerous is the productivity of the already created products to new markets. Such an outcome may necessitate additional investments for the purpose of advertising campaigns and product version to the new requirements. Coming into new market segments also requires significant marketing research, to identify new requirements and tastes of consumers.
Developing services requires in addition to considerable financial purchases and even purchase licenses, permits for production and different activities. Additional requirements for financial resources, as well as an unknown result of consumers to services bring new hazards. Diversification (into new markets with new products) is the most dangerous strategy for progress, because here the risk of development of new products combined with the risk of coming into new market segments.
Thus, is urgent the need for the orientation in the tactical guidelines for effective procedure. Therefore, the main reason for this article is to examine the growth strategies of firms. In this case, there would be looked at the theoretical areas of the problem as well - a technique for large, small and medium-sized organizations. Regarding to R. Nag, D. Hambrick (2007), strategy - is a definition of the basic long-term goals and objectives to approve a course of action and allocation of resources needed to achieve these goals.
Strategic alternatives are determined by comparing the functions and sources of the corporation, considering an acceptable level of risk. Ultimately, the forming of business strategy must give answers to three questions: What areas of economic activity need to be developed? What are the administrative centre needs and available resources? What's the possible effect on preferred areas?
You can find allocated lots of distinctive features of the strategy:
1. The procedure of developing the strategy will not end any immediate action. Usually, it ends up setting the overall direction, progress on which will ensure the expansion and conditioning of the organization.
2. Designed strategy should be utilized to develop tactical tasks, search techniques. The role of strategy in the search is the fact, firstly, to give attention to certain areas or features, and second, to reject all the alternatives as incompatible with the strategy.
3. The necessity for this strategy is no longer as soon as the actual span of events provides the organization to the required development.
4. Through the formulation of strategies can not foresee all the options that will arise in the drafting of specific activities. Therefore it is essential to use highly generalized, incomplete and inaccurate information about the many alternatives.
5. As well, more exact information can be called into question the validity of the initial strategy. It is therefore necessary to have the feedback that allows the timely reformulation strategy.
The process of employing the strategy can be divided into two stages: strategic planning process - is developing a set of strategies, ranging from basic business strategy and closing with functional strategies and individual projects; the proper management process - is an implementation of a strategy as time passes, a reformulation of plans in the light of new circumstances.
Strategic planning is systematized and logical process is based on rational thinking. At exactly the same time, it's the art work of prediction, research, computation and selection of alternatives. Strategies of enterprises should be created in a hierarchical manner. The levels of strategy, comprehensiveness, and integration are incredibly different, with respect to the type and size of the enterprise. Thus, a straightforward corporation may have a single strategy, and the organic - few different degrees of action.
According to Takashi Hikino (2007), conceptual model of a proper plan must determine the following stages of preparation of the proper plan of the business. Analysis of the environment:
Definition of company's coverage (goal setting). Strategy formulation and selection of alternatives:
a strategy for organizational changes;
Results of the proposed scheme above proper plan of the business structure is a report called Strategic Arrange for the business and typically has the following parts:
1. Aims and aims of the business.
2. Current activities of businesses and long-term objectives.
3. Business strategy (basic strategy, major insurance plan alternatives).
4. Useful strategy.
5. The most important projects.
6. Explanation of external procedures.
7. Investment and learning resource allocation.
8. Planning the unforeseen.
Applications: Quotes, referrals, other business documents, including: twelve-monthly sales by product group; annual profit and loss by division; the annual export and its relation to the quantity of sales models; changes in key products and market share; this program of total annual capital expenditures; total annual cashflow; balance at the end of the this past year of the plan; acquisition coverage.
Analysis of the literature on tactical planning in American firms demonstrated that the quantity and content of the phases of sketching up a strategic plan, as well as itself, its form can vary substantially and be based upon many factors, among which the primary ones are: possession of the enterprise; type of enterprise; size of the business (large, medium or small).
However, there is no solitary horizon of proper planning. Different countries have different specifications of strategic planning. For instance, Europe, as a rule, uses the 10-season plans, USA and Canada are employing the 5-12 months strategies and the Japan in general uses 3-season plans.
I want present strategies formulation and choice of alternatives.
According to Strategic Planning: Not Just for Big Business (2010), procedure for the formulation of strategy and choice of alternatives involves the next steps:
Evaluation of existing strategies;
The proper stage of the formulation;
Planning of risk;
Choice of tactical alternatives.
Let's examine these points in more detail. Assessment of the existing (existing) strategy. The initial assessment of the existing strategy is conducted at the previous stage - assessment of internal features. The strategy, being united as a basis for organizational effort, requires the development of a series of strategic ideas at both enterprise all together, and at the departmental level. Normally, each proper plan is a part of an over-all, and business strategy brings all of them together. The core of any proper plan, the company is its basic strategy. The decision of basic strategy is the prerogative of the business's management. Leadership, assessing and analyzing the info obtained in the previous steps, the ultimate decision.
Planning for risk is an important part of the strategic plan. The primary goal is to keep up a high degree of anti-disturbance of the environment and reduce loss from these disturbances. Recently, in American companies there is now increasingly popular not growing backup strategies, and building systems of crisis, characterized by an extremely high degree of centralization of decisions and quick respond to changes in the surroundings. This comes after from the actual fact that the group of possible disturbances become so diverse that the organization is not able to foresee all possible situations. Selection of strategic alternatives as part of the decided on basic strategy has several possible courses of action, that happen to be called proper alternatives.
Developing a technique should solve to the levels of government corporations as well as the alternatives produced for proper planning, are all employees of the business. Therefore, it is necessary to coordinate the interests in the formulation of a technique panel discussion. Furthermore, it allows management to consider many alternatives. But convergence in group selection is a lot lower than unity of command. Therefore, usually you can find held a -panel discussion and the sole final decision
According to W. Mulcaster (2009), development strategy consists of five periods:
1. Planning level. The company is ready to formulate a growth strategy. There is a certain combination of exterior conditions and interior capabilities.
2. Initial stage. Typically, a company is going through this level very fast. During this phase develops and then reduces bottlenecks in processes and structure of the execution of specific strategy, which were not foreseen in the plan.
3. Stage of penetration.
4. Accelerated development.
5. Transitional level.
The reason for the original strategy is to moderate growth in order to provide enterprises with access to optimal efficiency. Command is vigilant attitude into the accelerated development, trying to guarantee the identification of bottlenecks and eliminate them to continue to have a persistent unpleasant position on the market. As already known management must anticipate to ensure that the first stage may have problems in developing, administrative friction and strained financial condition, associated with high costs and lack of success. However, one of the goals of the original strategy is the velocity of this phase and move to another strategy.
Now consider penetration strategy. This strategy directs the work of the enterprise at a deeper market penetration and extra efforts to increase the pace of sales progress. If this requires the acquisition and absorption, they are created in the platform of the strategy. Long-term programs include conditioning and growing the action in every areas of functioning businesses, especially paying attention to the conditioning of financial positions, the modernization of set property, research and development. After achieving these goals and carrying out the necessary internal rebuilt, the business can move to the next strategy.
The strategy of accelerated expansion. The purpose of this strategy is the entire use of interior and external opportunities. This period of the cycle of progress must be achieved so long as possible, because on that happens the full utilization of resources, revenue growth begins to surpass sales expansion, market share getting close to is designed. But at the level of accelerated progress get started to emerge and gather the negative movements in the organization, so one of the goals of the strategy is as early as possible to identify and try to solve. If you solve the problems it isn't possible, the management company of this strategy starts a smooth changeover to implement the next strategy.
The strategy of changeover. The purpose of this strategy is to ensure that after a period of accelerated development during the regrouping and restructuring of the venture to enter into a new cycle of growth as quickly as possible, i. e. avoiding extended stagnation. The strategy envisages savings, the rejection of new productions. Going in-depth evaluation of the situation of the organization to lessen costs, improve profitability of products, restructuring the management system.
By itself, a growth strategy can be employed in different situations:
Start of business activities;
A young company struggling for its survival;
A single-product specialist company;
The variety of the business described the situation where expansion strategy in the business all together can full screenshot the expansion strategy for the person kind of product.
That is why, there may be offered many proper alternatives of progress in business methods. Listing only some of basic, strategic alternatives includes: an intensification of market diversification, inter-firm co-operation, overseas trade activities, stabilization strategy and success.
Within the upset the overall economy consistent with business cycles and the cycles of the previous business may experience a painful amount of instability, when start dropping sales and profits. There's a need to build up special analysis types of procedures that allow companies to fully capture the changeover from stage to stage of growth drop, i. e. the reorientation of the offensive in an offensive-defensive strategy - a strategy of stabilization.
Stabilization strategy is aimed at achieving an early alignment of profits, with subsequent increases, that is, with the move to another stage of growth. With regards to the rate of semester of the business it could be used with one of the three most likely approaches:
Savings with a intent to rapid recovery;
Changes in long downturn with less expect a rapid restoration;
Stabilization when there is needed a long-term program to accomplish a balanced point out of the enterprise market.
Survival strategy - is a strictly defensive strategy and is applied in situations of complete dislocation of the monetary activities of companies in circumstances close to individual bankruptcy. The strategy is to stabilize the problem, that is, the changeover to a strategy of stabilization and, consequently, to the development strategy. It is clear that strategy can't be long. It needs, on the one side, fast, strong, fully coordinated action, on the other - prudence and realism in the decision-making. That is why in the implementation of strategies for survival you can find small centralization of control, which creates a "crisis committee", which along with the adoption of swift reaction reaction to the disturbance of the environment grows and rigidly enforces the next programs: reorganization of management; financial restructuring; restructuring of marketing.
According to Scott C. Beardsley, Denis Bugrov, and Luis Enriquez (2005), business development company (organization) is identified by the following circumstances: in what marketplaces it manages, i. e. attained it the marketplace or it is for it new and what types of goods or services go to the market (products that are not used to the market or not). Practice proved that market relationships were developed in few basic areas that form the dynamic conduct of firms:
1. Development of activity of the organization (company) "deep", i. e. segmentation of existing market segments to fully capture their development of new consumer groups.
2. Growth of activity of the firm (company) "in breadth", i. e. diversification of creation through the issuance of new types of goods (products) as related to the essential profile of the venture and not associated with it.
3. Enlargement of activity by "quantitative" development - in sales of products by increasing production volumes of ongoing products for the existing market.
4. Expansion of activity of solid "across borders", i. e. software to increase creation at the trouble of stepping into new marketplaces.
Typically, these strategies are represented as matrix built with respect to the product and the marketplace (Stand 1).
Table 1. Matrix of the basic strategies
A1: Running away of market opportunities and product
A2: Development of new marketplaces. New market segmentation
B1: Penetration into unfilled niches with new or much better products
B2: Diversification of market segments and products
The field A1 is seen as a profound penetration strategy ("old" product - the "old" market). This plan is prosperous when the marketplace is not saturated. Competitive benefits may be accomplished by a company through lower production costs and prices of services. With regarding to the fields A2, it results that acquired a technique of expanding the marketplace (the "old" product - a "new" market). When working with this strategy, the business is trying to increase the sales of these products (services) in new market segments or new sections of existing market segments.
Strategy of product development ("new" products "-" old "market) is typical of the setting in the field B1. This plan is effective in creating new editions of products for existing market segments. Field B2 is seen as a a diversification strategy ("new" product - a "new" market). This strategy is used to remove the dependence of organizations on the production of a certain product (service) or from some of the market.
The basic strategy of the firm's expansion predetermines and basic strategies for strategic business units, which there are three main types.
1. Offensive strategy - is a strategy of conquest and extension of market talk about.
2. Protective strategy - is a strategy that keeps existing market talk about.
3. Retreat strategy - is a strategy for reducing the market share to turn a profit growth consequently of a gradual withdrawal from the marketplace or liquidation of the business enterprise.
Application by one or a different type of company strategy is identified by the positioning on the market, which is characterized by its market talk about (percentage). Based on market share there may be the next situation of the business and its own strategy:
1. Leader (market show - 40%) seems self-assured; the first can take the initiative in the costs of services. In defense, the leader has resorted to various actions: "Defensive position" - the leader creates barriers (charges, licensing) on the key directions of assault competitors; "Flank defense" - the leader outlines key areas, reinforced the point made by both the lively defense, and counterattack; "Proactive security" - the first choice organizes the lead opponent to the utilization of special alerts to neutralize the harm, for example, distributes information about the approaching price reductions; "Offensive" - after the head pauses, then strikes the weak point of a rival, for example, shows the trustworthiness of its product and unreliable nodes output a competitor; "Mobile defense" - the leader is increasing its influence in the variety of production, discovering the fundamental needs of clients; "Defense contracting" - the leader leaves the poor segments of the market while building up the most appealing.
2. Contender for the leadership (market share - 30%) feels confident only when attacked first. Different variations of attacks: "Frontal attack" is in many ways (new products and prices, advertising and sales) and requires extensive resources; "Surrounding" - an attempt to assault all or a substantial share of the marketplace leader place; "Crawl" - the changeover to the development of fundamentally services, entering new market segments or the execution of the leap in technology; "Guerrilla attack" - little choppy, invasion is nearly correct solution to demoralize an opponent.
3. Follower (market talk about - 20%) - this role is to follow the leader far away, saving electricity and money.
4. Novice, "entrenched" in the market (market show - 10%) - with this role is the start to newcomers. This search for market niches rather acceptable size and profitability.
Growth strategy can be applied through: expanded sales of products to more completely exploit the probable of the marketplace; release of new products on the already developed markets; outcome from already produced products to new, untapped market segments; diversification; acquisition of new businesses; release of services into new markets.
It should be mentioned, that it is least dangerous to expand the quantity sales of already produced goods. Pursuing - is new products to old market segments realization strategy and the end result of old products into new market segments. The most risky are out with new products for new markets.
Growth strategies for small business. Corresponding to Ben Gilad (2008), the key feature of the introduction of small firms in the market conditions is based on their overall flexibility, i. e. capability to quickly rebuild its effective activities, depending on market conditions. The main strategies of small organizations are represented in the matrix (Desk 2).
Table 2. The primary types of strategies of small organizations.
The condition of the prevailing firms
The product is a little firm
product of a sizable firm
Independence from big companies (sovereignty)
"The incorrect mushroom" (field1): Assistance Strategy
"Smart gudgeon" (field 2): The strategy of ideal size
Associated with large organizations (symbiosis)
"Chameleon" (field 4): The strategy of using the advantages of large firms
"Biting Bee" (field 3): Technique for participation in the product of large firms
Let's consider field 1. The essential strategy here - is the strategy of copying ("false mushroom"). The fact lies in the fact that a tiny company, using the results of technological research of greater firms in the initial product, released copies of the products at prices and quality is a lot inferior, as a rule, the original.
Relative to the field 2, we can say the next: there is used a strategy of optimum size ("Smart gudgeon "). Small company runs under the motto: "Usually do not stick your throat out" beyond its niche market. This strategy ensures the success and although a small firm, but assists as an obstacle expansion of the company.
With regard to field 3, there exists adopted a strategy of participation in the product of a large company ("Biting Bee"). Using this strategy can be done when a sole small factor of development of a more substantial company - is the finish product for this firm. To avoid dependence on the bigger firms a little firm should make an effort to limit the percentage of turnover attributable to one major customer, i. e. small firm should strive to deliver products to several large firms so that the share for every of them in total sales of the organization does not exceed 20%. This enables small companies as "stinging bees", forcing the bigger response, and force large companies to eliminate unproductive units.
Field 4 is characterized by the utilization of strategies to take benefit of a large firm ("Chameleon"). This is so-called strategy franchise, under that your agreement is concluded between small and large organizations, relating to which a large organization agrees to provide small firms own products, services, waste products technology business is short-term loan on concessional terms, rents out its equipment. Subsequently, a small firm shall maintain business associates with these extremely large businesses to do business, "the rules" of the large firm and a contract to transfer the talk about of total sales and only large organizations.
Growth strategy features of medium-sized firms. Corresponding to G. Johnson, K. Scholes (2008), medium-sized organizations tightened vise press of large organizations and small stinging pricks. For his or her success strategy is characteristic strategies of market specialization. The activities of the mid-sized businesses are build, depending on the growth of the marketplace and the possible rate of its growth (Table 3).
Table 3. Matrix of strategies medium-sized firms
Growth rates of firms
Field 1: Conservation strategy
Field 2: The strategy of search the invader
Field 3: Ways of move beyond the niche
Field 4: Strategy of leadership in the niche
As can be seen from the table, in field 1 there does apply strategy of saving current status. In this plan, there is threat of losing the topic because of changing needs. Field 2 is characterized by using the search strategy of the invader. Using this strategy can be dictated by the fact that the firm has an acute shortage of money to maintain its position within the specific niche market. Average firm begins search for a sizable company that can absorb it, keeping it as a relatively independent, autonomous creation unit. Use of financial resources of a huge company can maintain steadily its high position in the topic. Using this plan, the average company can keep changing owners, retaining its niche specialty area.
For field 3 is most common technique to move beyond specific niche market. When using this strategy, the firm has problems associated with the growth and the need for resources: company grows as fast as the market niche; firm should have adequate resources to maintain its rapid development.
Action of firm in Field 4, is usually based on a technique of control in a distinct segment. This strategy is prosperous only when market area of interest is too small for the common firm. Company by sales size reaching to the borders of a distinct segment market, will face your competition of larger companies. Because of this "decisive struggle" a company must accumulate the appropriate resources.
Growth strategies of large businesses. Large firms, in contrast to small have more opportunities to: organization of mass standardized production; broaden their activities (diversification) for guidelines.
In this context, progress strategies of large organizations are constructed in line with the amount of diversification and progress rates (Stand 4).
Table 4. Matrix of the expansion strategies of large firms
Growth rates/ Diversification degree
Companies that enter into the field 1 with a low amount of product diversification and quick development are called "Proud Lions". This is the strategy of market leaders in production; the progress in production is carried out rapidly, but a small range (e. g. gadgets).
Field 2, where there is an average degree of both signals includes firms, the so called "Mighty Elephants. " This is actually the strategy of businesses that occupy a stable position in the market and also have average development rates of outcome, but unlike the above firms amount of diversification of the development is wider, for example, they may cover the entire electrical production.
"Hulking behemoths" - is solid, focusing in the portion of Domains 3. This strategy is typical for companies with a higher degree of diversification and low growth rates of output, i. e. for firms making everything up to "nail" independently. The range of products of such organization is extremely vast from the fairly simple (for example, razors) to unique in its intricacy devices (for example, these devices for the treating nervous system).
In this part of article, I'd like to consider strategies and features that are normal to smaller businesses.
Strategies are integrated growth:
1. Backward vertical integration strategy, aimed at business growth through acquisition or strengthening of control over suppliers, as well as through the establishment of subsidiaries, is involved in supply. Execution of the strategy of vertical integration backward can give advantageous results by reducing dependence on fluctuations in element prices and requirements of suppliers. While deliveries to the business as a cost center could become a case of reverse vertical integration in the guts revenues.
2. Strategy of forward vertical integration is indicated in the progress of the business through the acquisition or escalates the effect on consumers, is useful in cases where mediation is broadened or when the company cannot find the middlemen from the product quality level of work.
3. Diversified development strategy implemented when a business cannot continue to develop the forex market with existing products on the market. Strategies of the type are: focused strategy of diversification, predicated on finding and using prisoners in an existing business, additional opportunities for new products. In cases like this, the existing creation remains at the guts of the business enterprise. A new arises on the basis of those features, which are made in market development, technology used, or other strengths of the performing of the organization.
According to Tsun-yan Hsieh and Sara Yik (2005), horizontal diversification strategy requires searching development opportunities in existing markets through services, needing new technology, than was used recently. With this strategy, the business should concentrate on the development of technologically related products, which can be used by existing features, such just as supply. Because the new product should be directed to the main consumer of the merchandise, on the attributes it must meet has already been manufactured product. A significant condition for the implementation of this strategy is an initial diagnosis of the organization's own know-how in the development of a new product.
Conglomerate diversification strategy is based on the actual fact that the company is expanding credited to services; technology is not related to the already produced and sold in emerging markets. This is one of the most difficult in execution development strategies. Its successful implementation depends upon many factors, specifically, the competence of the staff (especially managers), seasonality in the life span market, the availability of the necessary amounts of money.
4. Decrease strategies are noticed when the organization needs realignment of causes after an extended period of expansion. That is done in connection with the necessity to improve when there are setbacks or major changes in the economy, such as structural modification. Implementation of the strategies is often painful. However, top management must clearly realize that this same strategy of the firm as a rise strategy. Under certain circumstances they cannot be averted, as it is the only possible technique for updating the business enterprise.
There are four types of strategies targeted to reduce business:
1. Reduction strategy is a restricting case of decrease strategies and applied, if the company cannot execute further business;
2. Strategy of "harvesting" is implying the rejection of long-term view of business in favor of the maximum income in the short term. This plan is put on the unpromising business which cannot be profitably sold, but it can create revenue during the harvest. This strategy involves reducing the expense of purchasing and labor. The strategy of "harvesting" is designed to ensure that the continuous reduction of the business to accomplish zero for the period to maximize the reduced amount of aggregate income;
3. Decrease strategy lies in the fact that the business closes or offers one of its divisions or businesses in order to realize long-term change in eyesight borders central business. Often this strategy is being present in the diversified businesses, if one of the sectors may well not be coupled with others. This plan is performed when it needs to raise cash for the development of a more encouraging business;
4. Strategy is out there to reduce costs; the essential idea is to explore opportunities to lessen costs and activities. Its features: it is more centered on eliminating resources of small cost, and its implementation has momentary nature or short-term procedures (to lessen creation costs, increase efficiency, reduce hiring and even dismissal of the staff, the cessation of development of unprofitable products and closing unprofitable facilities). Used, companies can all together put into action multiple strategies. This is especially common in varied companies. There can be also made some regularity in the implementation of strategies. Around the first and second cases, it could be said, that the organization carries out a merged strategy.
I would like to present comparative characteristics of different expansion strategies. Regarding to Kim and Mauborgne (2005), the procedure of selecting expansion strategies includes the following basic steps:
Clarification of the current strategy;
Analysis of the merchandise portfolio;
A set of development strategies of the organization;
Clarification of the current strategy is very important because you cannot make decisions about the future without having a definite idea about the health of the organization and what plans it implements. Various strategies may be used to determine the current strategy. One possible way was proposed by Thomson and Strickland. They think that there are five factors both external and inside environment, which should be assessed to understand the applied strategy.
Scope of activity of the firm and the degree of diversity of products, diversification of production;
General figure and characteristics of recent acquisitions, the business and its sales of its property;
Structure and concentrate of its activities during the last period;
Opportunities for which it's been focused in recent years;
Relation to exterior threats.
Objectives of the business;
Criteria for allocation of resources and the prevailing pattern of investment in development;
Attitude to financial risk from both the administration and in accordance with its real practice and existing fiscal policy;
The level and amount of concentration in research and development;
strategies of specific functional areas (marketing, development, personnel, funding, R & D).
In a market overall economy, top-manager is insufficient to have a good product. He must strongly monitor the emergence of new technologies and plan their implementation in his company, to keep pace with rivals. The strategy is an interrelated set of actions in a particular situation, the existing conjuncture in order to strengthen the vitality and strength of the enterprise (company) with regards to its competition.
The selection of strategy is the main element to success as there are impressive and conventional businesses of any venture. The company may be in crisis if not able to anticipate changing circumstances and react to them in time. Choice of strategy is an essential component of the innovation pattern management.
All in all, development strategy can be combined with decision-making process. In such cases there are goals (for strategies) and the means where goals are reached (decisions). Clearly defined strategy is essential for the campaign of their fundamentals of products and improvements to the mark market. Growth approaches for small, medium and large organizations provide an array of possibilities for organizing activities for a certain time frame, as well as monitoring its performance. The company has an opportunity in accordance with established inner and exterior conditions to select for itself the section with the most appropriate percentage characteristics for the tactical planning of its activities.
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